Brain metabolite changes on in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in children with congenital hypothyroidism
ABSTRACT Localized in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging were performed in five children with untreated congenital hypothyroidism to look for biochemical markers of abnormal myelin and neuronal development. The patients had high levels of choline-containing compounds, which returned to normal with euthyroidism. These metabolic alterations may reflect blocks in myelin maturation that are reversible by thyroid hormone replacement throughout childhood.
- SourceAvailable from: Osama M. Ahmed
- "Excellent recent reviews discuss these studies in detail (de Escobar et al., 2000). Taken together, these studies present strong evidence that maternal thyroid hormone plays a role in fetal brain development before the onset of fetal thyroid function, and that thyroid hormone deficits in pregnant women can produce irreversible neurological effects in their offspring (Gupta et al., 1995; Klett, 1997). "
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- "Similarly, administration of lithium to patients with bipolar disorder yields reduction of Cho levels within the frontal lobe (Moore 1999), implicating Cho as a putative marker of symptom reduction in mood disorders. Numerous hypothetical roles have been ascribed to the Cho resonance, including (1) that Cho is a precursor to acetylcholine, critical to cholinergic-adrenergic equilibrium (Janowsky et al 1972); (2) that a component of Cho (i.e., phosphatidylcholine) is associated with intracellular signal transduction (Exton 1994); (3) that changes in Cho may be related to changes in cerebral oxidative metabolism (Duc et al 1997); and (4) that changes in Cho may reflect endocrine status (e.g., hypothyroidism) associated with mood disorders (Gupta et al 1995). Taken together with these hypotheses, our results highlight the important involvement of Cho underlying the integration of affective processing within prefrontal circuitry (Mesulam 1986; Sackeim et al 1990). "
ABSTRACT: Elevated brain Cho has been shown within the basal ganglia and frontal (i.e., orbitofrontal and cingulate) cortices in patients with mood disorders utilizing Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS). We sought to determine the relationship between Cho and mood in a cohort of healthy young subjects. Twenty-seven subjects without neurologic or psychiatric disorders were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and underwent 1H-MRS of bilateral frontal and occipito-parietal white matter. We found that Cho in the left frontal lobe was inversely correlated with Positive Affect [F(1,24) = 19.2, p <.001, r(2) =.45]. Our results highlight the important involvement of Cho underlying the integration of affective processing within prefrontal circuitry, and may indicate increased myelin turnover in subjects with lower Positive Affect. Further efforts will be necessary to determine if high Cho is associated with increased incidence of mood disorders throughout life.Biological Psychiatry 03/2002; 51(3):224-9. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(01)01224-0 · 10.25 Impact Factor
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- "Khiat et al (1999) have reported decreases in frontal and thalamic area Cho/Cr ratio in a group of patients with Cushing's syndrome. Gupta et al (1995) reported an increase in MRS choline resonance in a small sample of patients with congenital hypothyroidism that normalized with treatment. Bhatara et al (1998) reported decreased Cho/Cr ratios in patients with untreated Grave's disease that normalized with treatment. "
ABSTRACT: The frontal lobe has been implicated in the pathology of depression in adults. Through the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, altered brain choline levels have also been linked to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. To identify possible alterations in orbitofrontal cortex levels of cytosolic choline in adolescents with and without depression, 22 depressed and 43 control adolescents were recruited. Of those recruited, usable proton magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from a voxel in the left anterior medial frontal lobe of 17 depressed (mean age 15.8+/-1.6) and 28 healthy adolescents (mean age 14.5+/-1.7). Orbitofrontal cytosolic choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) ratios (p =.032) and cytosolic choline/N-acetyl aspartate (Cho/NAA) ratios (p =.043) were significantly higher in the depressed subjects than in the control subjects. There were no significant differences between depressed and control subjects in gray or white matter content within the voxel. These findings suggest that brain cytosolic choline may be increased in depressed adolescents in comparison with control subjects and independent of a corresponding structural change. These results are consistent with similar, previously reported findings in adults and suggest that depression in adolescents is associated with alterations in orbitofrontal metabolism.Biological Psychiatry 01/2001; 48(11):1053-61. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3223(00)00942-2 · 10.25 Impact Factor