Technical note: Use of a double inversion recovery pulse sequence to image selectively grey or white brain matter

MRI Centre, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, UK.
British Journal of Radiology (Impact Factor: 2.03). 01/1995; 67(804):1258-63.
Source: PubMed


The design of a double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence, to image selectively grey or white brain matter, is described. Suitable choice of inversion times allows either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and white matter to be suppressed, to image the cortex alone, or CSF and grey matter to be suppressed, to image the white matter. The DIR sequence was found to give clear delineation of the cerebral cortex.

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    • "In 1994, a new MRI sequence, the double inversion recovery (DIR), was introduced. This technique provided excellent distinction between the cerebral cortex and the WM in the healthy human subjects by suppression of the signal from WM and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [67]. DIR proved to be superior in comparison to FLAIR where it concerned intratentorial lesions and lesions with low contrast on T2-weighted MR sequences [68]. "
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    ABSTRACT: At the early onset of the 20th century, several studies already reported that the gray matter was implicated in the histopathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, as white matter pathology long received predominant attention in this disease, and histological staining techniques for detecting myelin in the gray matter were suboptimal, it was not until the beginning of the 21st century that the true extent and importance of gray matter pathology in MS was finally recognized. Gray matter damage was shown to be frequent and extensive, and more pronounced in the progressive disease phases. Several studies subsequently demonstrated that the histopathology of gray matter lesions differs from that of white matter lesions. Unfortunately, imaging of pathology in gray matter structures proved to be difficult, especially when using conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. However, with the recent introduction of several more advanced MRI techniques, the detection of cortical and subcortical damage in MS has considerably improved. This has important consequences for studying the clinical correlates of gray matter damage. In this review, we provide an overview of what has been learned about imaging of gray matter damage in MS, and offer a brief perspective with regards to future developments in this field.
    BMC Neurology 12/2011; 11(1):153. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-11-153 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    • "Compared with standard pulse sequences such as FLAIR and T2 TSE, substantial drawbacks of DIR applications at 1.5 T are the higher propensity to produce artefacts (in particular because of vessel and CSF flow) but also the relatively low SNR due to the application of two consecutive inversion pulses. These factors can substantially impair the image quality and diagnostic accuracy in many disease entities [24–26]. Because of the higher SNR, imaging at higher magnetic field strengths is, therefore, a promising application of DIR imaging, allowing a further characterisation of cortical structures even with a high spatial resolution [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the impact of a higher magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla (T) on the detection rate of cortical lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in particular using a dedicated double inversion recovery (DIR) pulse sequence. Thirty-four patients with clinically isolated syndromes or definite MS were included. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T and 3 T, including T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and DIR sequences. All images were analysed for focal lesions categorised according to their anatomical location. The total number of detected lesions was higher at 3 T across all pulse sequences. We observed significantly higher numbers of lesions involving the cortex at 3 T using a DIR sequence. DIR at 3 T showed 192% more pure intracortical (p < 0.001) and 30% more mixed grey matter-white matter lesions (p = 0.008). No significant increase in cortical lesions could be detected on the FLAIR and T2-weighted images. Using the T2-weighted and FLAIR sequences, significantly more lesions could be detected at 3 T in the infratentorial, periventricular and juxtacortical white matter. DIR brain MR imaging at 3 T substantially improves the sensitivity of the detection of cortical lesions compared with the standard magnetic field strength of 1.5 T.
    European Radiology 07/2010; 20(7):1675-83. DOI:10.1007/s00330-009-1705-y · 4.01 Impact Factor
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    • "Prior data were used to estimate the T 1 values for the three brain compartments (GM: 1070 AE 60 ms; WM: 720 AE 30 ms; CSF: 4440 AE 50 ms). With the expression derived by Redpath and Smith (1994), two pairs of T inv1 and T inv2 timings were computed that gave simultaneous nulls of the CSF compartment with either that from GM or WM. Twenty-one 1D projections were acquired for each set of inversion timings. "
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiological underpinnings of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. However, they may be due in part to changes in the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle) generally, or changes in myo-inositol concentrations more specifically. Dextro-amphetamine has been used as a model for mania in several human studies as it causes similar subjective and physiological symptoms. We wanted to determine if dextro-amphetamine altered myo-inositol concentrations in vivo as it would clearly define a mechanism linking putative changes in the PI-cycle to the subjective psychological changes seen with dextro-amphetamine administration. Fifteen healthy human volunteers received a baseline scan, followed by second scan 75 min after receiving a 25 mg oral dose of dextro-amphetamine. Stimulated echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans were preformed at 3.0 Tesla (T) in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC). Metabolite data were adjusted for tissue composition and analyzed using LCModel. Twelve adult male rats were treated acutely with a 5-mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of dextro-amphetamine. After 1 h rats were decapitated and the brains were rapidly removed and frozen until dissection. Rat brains were dissected into frontal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas, as well as hippocampus. Tissue was analyzed using a Varian 18.8 T spectrometer. Metabolites were identified and quantified using Chenomx Profiler software. The main finding in the present study was that myo-inositol concentrations in the DMPFC of human volunteers and in the four rat brain regions were not altered by acute dextro-amphetamine. While it remains possible that the PI-cycle may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, it is not likely that the subjective and physiological of dextro-amphetamine are mediated, directly or indirectly, via alternations in myo-inositol concentrations.
    Neuroscience Research 09/2008; 61(4):351-9. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2008.04.001 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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