Excitotoxic cytopathology, progression, and reversibility of thiamine deficiency-induced diencephalic lesions.
ABSTRACT The present study examined the cytopathological changes within diencephalon of a rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy and determined whether administration of thiamine at various intervals after onset of neurological signs can arrest or reverse the cytopathological process. Electron microscopic examination of the brains from animals sacrificed at four progressively severe stages of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) revealed neurocytopathological changes identical to those that have been described in glutamate-induced excitotoxic lesions. These degenerative changes occurred in gelatinosus (Ge) and anteroventral ventrolateral (AVVL) nuclei at an early symptomatic stage and in the ventroposterolateral (VPL), ventroposteromedial (VPM), and ventrolateral (VL) nuclei at slightly later stages of PTD. Light microscopic evaluation of separate groups of PTD rats administered thiamine at each of the same four neurologic stages and allowed to recover for 1 week demonstrated that thiamine treatment is more effective when administered at earlier stages. However, Ge, AVVL, and VPL nuclei sustain severe damage even when thiamine is administered prior to acute neurologic signs. Furthermore, pathologic changes in the mammillary and several midline intralaminar nuclei begin after thiamine administration and reinstitution of thiamine-replete diet to animals in more severe stages of thiamine deficiency. These and other recent findings suggest that excitotoxic and possibly apoptotic mechanisms may mediate neuronal degeneration in the PTD rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy, and that multiple factors conducive to excitotoxicity may act in concert to produce this syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, associated with a variety of conditions, including chronic alcoholism and bariatric surgery for morbid obesity, can result in the neurological disorder Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE). Recent work building upon early observations in animal models of thiamine deficiency has demonstrated an inflammatory component to the neuropathology observed in thiamine deficiency. The present, multilevel study including in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and postmortem quantification of chemokine and cytokine proteins sought to determine whether a combination of these in vivo neuroimaging tools could be used to characterize an in vivo MR signature for neuroinflammation. Thiamine deficiency for 12 days was used to model neuroinflammation; glucose loading in thiamine deficiency was used to accelerate neurodegeneration. Among 38 animals with regional brain tissue assayed postmortem for cytokine/chemokine protein levels, three groups of rats (controls + glucose, n = 6; pyrithiamine + saline, n = 5; pyrithiamine + glucose, n = 13) underwent MRI/MRS at baseline (time 1), after 12 days of treatment (time 2), and 3 h after challenge (glucose or saline, time 3). In the thalamus of glucose-challenged, thiamine deficient animals, correlations between in vivo measures of pathology (lower levels of N-acetyle aspartate and higher levels of lactate) and postmortem levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as chemokine ligand 2, CCL2) support a role for this chemokine in thiamine deficiency-related neurodegeneration, but do not provide a unique in vivo signature for neuroinflammation.Experimental Neurology 11/2014; · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16 days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE), which resulted in a severe weight loss. At the 22(nd) day, the food intake was reduced by 69% and 74% for male and female mice, respectively in TD group. The REE increased by 9 folds in TD group. The loss of body weight (17-24%) was similar between male and female animals and mainly resulted from the reduction of fat mass (49% decrease). Re-supplementation of thiamine (benfotiamine) restored animal's appetite, leading to a total recovery of body weight. The hypothalamic AMPK is a critical regulator of food intake. TD inhibited the phosphorylation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus without affecting its expression. TD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation was reversed once thiamine was re-supplemented. In contrast, TD increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle and upregulated the uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissues which was consistent with increased basal energy expenditure. Re-administration of thiamine stabilized AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle as well as energy expenditure. Taken together, TD may induce anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK activity. With a simultaneous increase in energy expenditure, TD caused an overall body weight loss. The results suggest that the status of thiamine levels in the body may affect food intake and body weight.Neuroscience 03/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) leads to focal brain necrosis in particular brain regions in humans and in experimental animal models. The precise mechanism of the selective topographic vulnerability triggered by TD still remains unclear. We examined the distribution pattern of cell death in the brains of mice in an experimental model of TD using anti-single-strand DNA immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling methods. We found that interneurons in the olfactory bulb were sensitive to TD. The morphologic aspects of cell death in the olfactory bulb resembled those of cell death in thalamic neurons, which have previously been examined in detail. Furthermore, cell death in the olfactory bulb was partly relieved by the administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, as was the case in thalamic lesions by TD. The superficial part of the olfactory granule cell layer seemed to be the most sensitive to TD, suggesting that differences in the afferents between superficial and deep granule cells may influence the sensitivity of these cells to TD. Our results indicate that the olfactory bulb should be considered as one of the vulnerable regions to TD.Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 11/2013;