Implicit Social Cognition: Attitudes, Self-Esteem, and Stereotypes

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.
Psychological Review (Impact Factor: 7.97). 02/1995; 102(1):4-27. DOI: 10.1037//0033-295X.102.1.4
Source: PubMed


Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by the actor. The present conclusion--that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation--extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. Methodologically, this review calls for increased use of indirect measures--which are imperative in studies of implicit cognition. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action) aimed at reducing such unintended discrimination.

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    • "Much like status characteristics, stereotypes can impact the performance of the groups that they are applied to (see Nguyen and Ryan, 2008), even if the group members do not agree with the stereotype themselves. However the individual must be explicitly or implicitly (Greenwald and Banaji, 1995) primed on, or otherwise made aware of, their stereotyped status or the stereotyped status of others (Aronson et al., 1999) while performing a salient task (Steele and Aronson, 1995; Shih et al., 1999). For example, a female who completes a math test in an environment that makes her sex salient will generally exhibit poorer performance relative to a female whose sex is not made salient (Steele, 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: How does an individual's sex influence their recall of social relations? Extensive research has shown that social networks differ by sex and has attempted to explain these differences either through structural availability or individual preferences. Addressing the limitations of these explanations, we build on an increasing body of research emphasizing the role of cognition in the formation and maintenance of networks to argue that males and females may exhibit different strategies for encoding and recalling social information in memory. Further, because activating sex roles can alter cognitive performance, we propose that differences in recall may only or primarily appear when respondents are made aware of their sex. We explore differences in male and female network memory using a laboratory experiment asking respondents to memorize and recall a novel social network after receiving either a sex prime or a control prime. We find that sex significantly impacts social network recall, however being made aware of one's sex does not. Our results provide evidence that differences in male and female networks may be partly due to sex-based differences in network cognition.
    Social Networks 08/2016; 44:74-84. DOI:10.1016/j.socnet.2015.06.002 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Implicit measures utilize the performance in simple categorization tasks. Participants' associations are inferred on the basis of their objective response latencies, which are taken to reflect automatic attitudes, stereotypes, self-evaluations, or trait-like aspects of the self-concept (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). More specifically, these constructs are captured in an associative, non-propositional form a few hundred milliseconds after stimulus presentation (Gawronski, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the standard 2D representation of a recent violent computer game to its 3D representation realized by shutter-goggles in a lab experiment. Assuming that the higher degree of realism of media violence would impact stronger on players in a pretest–posttest design, we analyzed the influence of violent video game exposure on implicit and explicit measures of aggressiveness. According to an explicit questionnaire on aggressiveness, participants reported having becoming more peaceful, whereas an Implicit Association Test on aggressiveness (Agg-IAT) indicated that the association between self and aggressive behavior became stronger after violence exposure, confirming the unique utility of Agg-IATs in media research. The 3D visualization mode, however, did not further strengthen this association, and a mediation model of increases in aggressiveness by participants’ flow experiences was not supported. When inspecting flow experiences, an interaction effect between gender and visualization mode was evident: Male participants were more likely to have flow experiences in the high-realism (3D) format, whereas female participants were more likely to experience flow in the standard (2D) mode. We discuss the findings in the context of automatic information processing in aggression, and we contend possible changes in automatic behavioral precursors due to media influence.
    Computers in Human Behavior 12/2015; 53:278-288. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.018 · 2.69 Impact Factor
    • "Une autre consé quence de la stigmatisation, c'est le sentiment de honte et d'e ´ trangeté qu'elle provoque chez ceux qui en sont les victimes. Les liens entre la repré sentation de soi-même et les attentes et attitudes d'autrui ont e ´ té mis en e ´ vidence dans diffé rentes e ´ tudes [8] [21] [29]. Ces attitudes opè rent souvent de maniè re implicite et inconsciente. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the context of a multi-annual research project, aiming at exploring the relations between traumatic biographic events since childhood and the structural functioning of personality at adult age, the results of a prospective longitudinal study will be analyzed. Context of the study: Following an exploratory study with n= 206 people suffering from exclusion and marginalization and a confirmatory study with a new sample of n=. 195 people, the third stage of the research project was focused on the assessment of arts psychotherapeutic interventions. We present a longitudinal study on the efficiency of arts psychotherapies with n=. 34 people living in great precariousness and suffering from severe posttraumatic syndromes. The research population was encountered in shelters for homeless people. Clinical and experimental results: The clients assisted weekly group sessions during six months to one year. The sessions were directed by experienced psychologists (Master in clinical and health psychology) who had acquired a second Master degree in arts psychotherapies. The exploration of the therapeutic process is based on original rating scales allowing using the pictorial and literary production as a tool of research and computing correlations between psychometric scales, projective tests and expressive tests. In a previous study, 96 % of the pictures drawn during arts psychotherapeutic sessions by people suffering from exclusion and marginalization could be classified into the following typology: (1) type 1: Desire for the Lost Paradise; (2) type 2: Fascination by Evil and Death; (3) type 3: Graphics and Ornamentation; (4) type 4: Description and Banalization; (5) type 5: Fragmentation and Dislocation of Forms. The inspection of the table of frequencies showed a similar distribution of types in the sample of the present study. The analysis of this distribution allowed making a meaningful psychological interpretation at the light of current clinical literature. In order to explore the parallel evolution in the pictorial and literary expression during the psychotherapeutic sessions, rank correlations (Spearman's Rho) were computed between the delta values (post-test-pretest) of the rating scales for the pictures and for the stories written under musical induction. The matrix of correlations indicated a parallel evolution on formal and content values in the two kinds of artistic expressions, pointing towards a progress in the underlying capacity of imaginary and symbolic elaboration. Four representative clinical vignettes are meant to illustrate the peculiar being-in-the world and the existential anxiety of people who feel marginalized, discriminated and uprooted and whose self-esteem is very low. Discussion and conclusion: The discussion is focused on the pertinence of the results of this study in the context of the current literature related to psycho-trauma, great precariousness, and discrimination, as well as to the possibility to draw from the evolution of the artistic production some indications related to a resumption of the blocked process of subjectivation. The limits of arts therapies and arts psychotherapies with this kind of population are linked, among others, to the irreversible effects of long term psychological stress on the hippocampal area of the brain, as well as to the toxic effects of inveterated alcohol and drug addiction.
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