Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes.
ABSTRACT Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. The identifying feature of implicit cognition is that past experience influences judgment in a fashion not introspectively known by the actor. The present conclusion--that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation--extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. Methodologically, this review calls for increased use of indirect measures--which are imperative in studies of implicit cognition. The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. The finding that implicit cognitive effects are often reduced by focusing judges' attention on their judgment task provides a basis for evaluating applications (such as affirmative action) aimed at reducing such unintended discrimination.
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ABSTRACT: A sample of 128 undergraduate women reported stronger identification with college education than with motherhood. In contrast, an Implicit Association Test revealed a slightly stronger identification with motherhood than with college education. Implicit attitudes toward college education and motherhood correlated with implicit (but not explicit) identification, whereas explicit attitudes correlated with explicit identification and, to a lesser extent, implicit identification. Internal (but not external) motivation to define the self as academically oriented predicted both explicit and implicit identifications. Results regarding the role of childhood and current experiences with gender roles were inconclusive. As a whole, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the potential for conflicts in the self-concept of college women.Self and Identity 12/2014; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examines and characterizes the way foreign-born academic scientists interact with private firms. Using status characteristics theory this inquiry explores how foreign-born tenured and tenure-track academic scientists in the 150 most research-intensive U.S. universities interact with the private sector by means of six discrete interaction modes. The study further investigates whether foreign-born academic scientists’ interactions with private firms are more of a formal or informal nature vis-à-vis those of native-born scientists’. The empirical analysis indicates that foreign-born academic scientists have lower odds of having been approached by private firms to ask about their research activities, lower odds of having served as a paid consultant to firms, and lower odds of having been engaged in the joint transfer and commercialization of technologies with private firms, relative to their US-born counterparts. In contrast foreign-born academic scientists have significantly higher odds of having co-authored scientific articles with private firms than their US-born counterparts. The article discusses the implications for university technology commercialization and innovation management in firms.Journal of Product Innovation Management 12/2014; · 1.57 Impact Factor
Article: Lateral attitude change[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (1) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (2) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared to established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented.Personality and Social Psychology Review 01/2015; · 6.07 Impact Factor