Pap smear screening and changes in cervical cancer mortality in Sweden.
ABSTRACT Age-adjusted incidence of cervical carcinoma has fallen dramatically in Sweden in recent decades. This investigation is an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the gynecologic Pap smear screening program in terms of reduction of mortality from cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer mortality trends in relation to age, calendar period, county and degree of screening activities in the population were analyzed. Multiplicative Poisson regression models were utilized. The reduction of mortality was attributed to the activities of cervical screening.
The analysis gave a calculated 53% reduction in cervical cancer mortality (95% confidence limits 23-72%), attributable to screening.
The study supports the hypothesis that gynecological Pap smear screening has had an important impact on the reduction in cervical cancer mortality.
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ABSTRACT: National cancer control plans are needed to stem the rapidly rising global cancer burden. Prevention and early detection are complementary but distinct strategies for cancer control. Some cancers are prevented through behavior and/or environmental modifications that reduce cancer risk, whereas other cancers are more amenable to treatment when they are successfully diagnosed at early stages. Prevention and early detection strategies should be prioritized on the basis of country-specific cancer demographics, modifiable risk factor distribution, and existing treatment resource availability. Following an individualized plan integrating prevention and early detection strategies, deficits can be targeted to strengthen national health systems for cancer control. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.Science translational medicine 03/2015; 7(278):278cm1. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3008853 · 14.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background : Cervical cancer is a common, preventable and manageable disease in women worldwide. Objectives : This study was conducted to determine the cost of follow-up for suspicious precancerous cervical lesions within a screening program using Pap smear or HPV DNA test through the decision tree. Materials and Methods : Patient follow-up processes were determined using standard guidelines and consultation with specialists to design a decision tree model. Costs of treatment in both public and private sectors were identified according to the national tariffs in 2010 and determined based on decision tree and provided services (visits to specialists, colposcopy, and conization) with two modalities: Pap smear and HPV DNA test. The number of patients and the mean cost of treatment in each sector were calculated. The prevalence of lesions and HPV were obtained from literature to estimate the cost of treatment for each woman in the population. Results : Follow-up costs were determined using seven processes for Pap smear and 11 processes for HPV DNA test. The total cost of using Pap smear and HPV DNA process for each woman in the population was 36.1$ and 174 $ respectively. Conclusions:The follow-up process for patients with suspicious cervical lesions needs to be included in the existing screening program. HPV DNA test is currently more expensive than Pap smear, it is suggested that we manage precancerous cervical lesions with this latter testAsian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 10/2014; 15(19). DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.19.8209 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Cervical cancer has been a leading female cancer in Thailand for decades, and has been second to breast cancer after 2007. The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) has provided opportunistic screening with Pap smears for more than 30 years. In 2002, the MoPH and the National Health Security Office provided countrywide systematic screening of cervical cancer to all Thai women aged 35-60 years under universal health care coverage insurance scheme at 5-year intervals. Objectives: This study characterized the cervical cancer incidence trends in Songkhla in southern Thailand using joinpoint and age period cohort (APC) analysis to observe the effect of cervical cancer screening activities in the past decades, and to project cervical cancer rates in the province, to 2030. Materials and Methods: Invasive and in situ cervical cancer cases were extracted from the Songkhla Cancer Registry from 1990 through 2010. Age standardized incidence rates were estimated. Trends in incidences were evaluated by joinpoint and APC regression models. The Norpred package was modified for R and was used to project the future trends to 2030 using the power of 5 function and cut trend method. Results: Cervical cancer incidence in Songkhla peaked around 1998-2000 and then dropped by -4.7% per year. APC analysis demonstrated that in situ tumors caused an increase in incidence in early ages, younger cohorts, and in later years of diagnosis. Conclusions: Both joinpoint and APC analysis give the same conclusion in continuation of a declining trend of cervical cancer to 2030 but with different rates and the predicted goal of ASR below 10 or even 5 per 100,000 women by 2030 would be achieved. Thus, maintenance and improvement of the screening program should be continued. Other population based cancer registries in Thailand should analyze their data to confirm the success of cervical cancer screening policy of Thailand.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 12/2014; 15(22):10003-10008. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2014.15.22.10003 · 1.50 Impact Factor