Orientation-conserved transfer of symmetric Krebs cycle intermediates in mammalian tissue.
ABSTRACT Metabolism of [2-13C]-, [3-13C]-, and [1,2,3-13C]propionate in perfused rat livers and [2-13C]-acetate in perfused rat hearts has been examined in tissue extracts by 13C NMR. Label from [2-13C]-propionate was preferentially incorporated into the C2 carbon of lactate, alanine, and aspartate in liver tissue while label from [3-13C]propionate appeared preferentially in the C3 carbon of those same molecules. These data suggest that 13C may not be completely randomized in the symmetric citric acid cycle intermediates succinate and fumarate as is normally assumed but that some fraction of those intermediates may be transferred between enzymes in this span of the cycle with conservation of spatial orientation, consistent with recent results obtained in yeast [Sumegi et al. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 9106-9110]. This was confirmed by performing similar experiments with [1,2,3-13C]propionate. Time-dependent asymmetry was also observed between the intensities of the glutamate C2 and C3 resonances and between the aspartate C2 and C3 resonances in 13C NMR spectra of intact hearts and heart extracts during early perfusion with [2-13C]-acetate. A model is presented which predicts that isotopic asymmetry is observed only during the first 2-3 turns of the cycle pools when isotope enters the cycle via acetyl-CoA even if all symmetric cycle intermediates retain a unique molecular orientation on each pass through the citric acid cycle.
Article: Central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae explored by biosynthetic fractional (13)C labeling of common amino acids.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aerobic and anaerobic central metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells was explored in batch cultures on a minimal medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source, using biosynthetic fractional (13)C labeling of proteinogenic amino acids. This allowed, firstly, unravelling of the network of active central pathways in cytosol and mitochondria, secondly, determination of flux ratios characterizing glycolysis, pentose phosphate cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle and C1-metabolism, and thirdly, assessment of intercompartmental transport fluxes of pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetate and glycine. The data also revealed that alanine aminotransferase is located in the mitochondria, and that amino acids are synthesized according to documented pathways. In both the aerobic and the anaerobic regime: (a) the mitochondrial glycine cleavage pathway is active, and efflux of glycine into the cytosol is observed; (b) the pentose phosphate pathways serve for biosynthesis only, i.e. phosphoenolpyruvate is entirely generated via glycolysis; (c) the majority of the cytosolic oxaloacetate is synthesized via anaplerotic carboxylation of pyruvate; (d) the malic enzyme plays a key role for mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism; (e) the transfer of oxaloacetate from the cytosol to the mitochondria is largely unidirectional, and the activity of the malate-aspartate shuttle and the succinate-fumarate carrier is low; (e) a large fraction of the mitochondrial pyruvate is imported from the cytosol; and (f) the glyoxylate cycle is inactive. In the aerobic regime, 75% of mitochondrial oxaloacetate arises from anaplerotic carboxylation of pyruvate, while in the anaerobic regime, the tricarboxylic acid cycle is operating in a branched fashion to fulfill biosynthetic demands only. The present study shows that fractional (13)C labeling of amino acids represents a powerful approach to study compartmented eukaryotic systems.European Journal of Biochemistry 05/2001; 268(8):2464-79. · 3.58 Impact Factor