Characterization of a novel tumor-derived cytokine. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.
ABSTRACT Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) was initially identified in the supernatant of murine methylcholanthrene A-induced fibrosarcomas (Meth A) by its capacity to activate host effector cells (Kao, J., Ryan, J., Brett, J., Chen, J., Shen, H., Fan, Y-G., Godman, G., Familletti, P., Wang, F., Pan, Y-C., Stern, D., and Clauss, M. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 20239-20247). Based on the NH2-terminal protein sequence, a full-length cDNA has been cloned which indicates that the precursor of EMAP II is a unique, leaderless, single polypeptide chain with predicted molecular mass approximately 34 kDa and that the mature form released by Meth A cells corresponds to approximately 20 kDa. Purified recombinant mature EMAP II (EMAP II, approximately 20 kDa form) activated endothelial cells with resulting elevation of cytosolic free calcium concentration, release of von Willebrand factor, induction of tissue factor, and expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin and P-selectin. Neutrophils exposed to EMAP II demonstrated elevated cytosolic free calcium concentration, peroxidase generation, and chemotaxis. EMAP II also activated mononuclear phagocytes elevating cytosolic free calcium concentration, inducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and tissue factor, and stimulating chemotaxis. Systemic infusion of EMAP II into C3H/HeJ or Balb/c mice was associated with systemic toxicity, pulmonary congestion, and the appearance of TNF, interleukin-1 and -6 in the plasma. A single intra-tumor injection of EMAP II into Meth A sarcomas induced acute thrombohemorrhage and partial tumor regression. Local injection of EMAP II into a tumor resistant to the effects of TNF, murine mammary carcinoma, rendered it sensitive to subsequently administered TNF, which resulted in acute thrombohemorrhage and partial regression. These data suggest that recombinant EMAP II, a tumor-derived cytokine, has properties of a proinflammatory mediator with the capacity to prime the tumor vasculature for a locally destructive process.
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ABSTRACT: Cancer therapy is in the midst of a major paradigm shift. Traditionally, cancer treatments have focused on tumour cells. However, studies over the past few decades have demonstrated that cancer is a vastly complex entity with multiple components affecting a tumour's growth, invasion and metastasis. These components, collectively termed the 'tumour microenvironment', include endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, leucocytes and elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Biological agents that target components of the tumour microenvironment may provide an interesting alternative to traditional tumour cell-directed therapy. Because of the complexity of the tumour milieu, the most beneficial therapy will likely involve the combination of one or more agents directed at this new target. This review highlights recent preclinical and clinical studies involving agents that target tumour vasculature, leucocytes, pericytes, cancer-associated fibroblasts and ECM components. We pay particular attention to combination therapies targeting multiple components of the tumour microenvironment, and aim to demonstrate that this strategy holds promise for the future of cancer treatment.Oral Diseases 12/2008; 15(1):8-17. DOI:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2008.01471.x · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The EMAPII (endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II) domain is a tRNA-binding domain associated with several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which becomes an independent domain with inflammatory cytokine activity upon apoptotic cleavage from the p43 component of the multisynthetase complex. It comprises a domain that is highly homologous to bacterial tRNA-binding proteins (Trbp), followed by an extra domain without homology to known proteins. Trbps, which may represent ancient tRNA chaperones, form dimers and bind one tRNA per dimer. In contrast, EMAPII domains are monomers. Here we report the crystal structure at 1.14 Angstroms of human EMAPII. The structure reveals that the Trbp-like domain, which forms an oligonucleotide-binding (OB) fold, is related by degenerate 2-fold symmetry to the extra-domain. The pseudo-axis coincides with the dyad axis of bacterial TtCsaA, a Trbp whose structure was solved recently. The interdomain interface in EMAPII mimics the intersubunit interface in TtCsaA, and may thus generate a novel OB-fold-based tRNA-binding site. The low sequence homology between the extra domain of EMAPII and either its own OB fold or that of Trbps suggests that dimer mimicry originated from convergent evolution rather than gene duplication.The EMBO Journal 03/2001; 20(3):570-8. DOI:10.1093/emboj/20.3.570 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cDNA encoding rice methionyl-tRNA synthetase was isolated. The protein exhibited a C-terminal polypeptide appended to a classical MetRS domain. This supplementary domain is related to endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAPII), a cytokine produced in mammals after cleavage of p43, a component of the multisynthetase complex. It is also related to Arc1p and Trbp111, two tRNA binding proteins. We expressed rice MetRS and a derivative with a deletion of its EMAPII-like domain. Band-shift analysis showed that this extra-domain provides MetRS with non-specific tRNA binding properties. The EMAPII-like domain contributed a 10-fold decrease in K:(M) for tRNA in the aminoacylation reaction catalyzed by the native enzyme, as compared with the C-terminally truncated MetRS. Consequently, the EMAPII domain provides MetRS with a better catalytic efficiency at the free tRNA concentration prevailing in vivo. This domain binds the acceptor minihelix of tRNA(Met) and facilitates its aminoacylation. These results suggest that the EMAPII module could be a relic of an ancient tRNA binding domain that was incorporated into primordial synthetases for aminoacylation of RNA minihelices taken as the ancestor of modern tRNA.The EMBO Journal 01/2001; 19(24):6908-17. DOI:10.1093/emboj/19.24.6908 · 10.75 Impact Factor