Properties of mammalian tissue-bound semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase: possible clues to its physiological function?
ABSTRACT Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), occurs not only in vascular smooth muscle but also in other cell types (e.g. adipocytes, chondrocytes, odontoblasts), probably in the plasma membrane. Although certain aromatic biogenic amines (e.g. tryptamine, tyramine, beta-phenyl-ethylamine) may be endogenous substrates for SSAO in species such as the rat, the weak activity of SSAO in human tissues towards these amines makes this less likely in man. However SSAO in human and rat vascular homogenates readily converts the aliphatic biogenic amines methylamine and aminoacetone to formaldehyde and methylglyoxal, respectively. Also the xenobiotic aliphatic amine allylamine produces cardiovascular damage in experimental animals by a mechanism which involves its deamination by SSAO to acrolein. Further metabolism of these toxic aliphatic aldehydes may involve glutathione-dependent pathways. Thus, SSAO may be involved not only in the removal of physiologically-active endogenous/xenobiotic amines, but resulting metabolite (aldehyde/H2O2?) formation could also influence cellular function.
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ABSTRACT: Microsomal semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) from bovine lung was shown to be inhibited by a number of hydrazine derivatives, but the mechanisms of inhibition were found to differ. Hydralazine behaved as an irreversible and partially time-dependent inhibitor with an IC50 value of 1 microM under the conditions used. Phenylhydrazine was found to be a potent irreversible inhibitor of SSAO (IC50 30 nM). Semicarbazide behaved as a specific irreversible inhibitor (active-site-directed irreversible inhibitor) in first forming a non-covalent enzyme-semicarbazide complex (with a Ki value of 85 microM), which then reacted to give an irreversibly inhibited enzyme species in a reaction defined by the first-order rate constant k2 = 0.065 min-1. Phenelzine behaved as a reversible inhibitor, but dialysis at 37 degrees C was found to be necessary to obtain full recovery of enzyme activity. The dependence of inhibition on phenelzine concentration was complex and consistent with multiple binding sites for this inhibitor. This diversity in the action of a family of compounds with the same functional group must be taken into account in attempts to design more specific inhibitors of this enzyme.Biochemical Pharmacology 08/1996; 52(2):187-95. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(96)00132-3
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ABSTRACT: Trace amines, including tyramine, beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA), tryptamine and octopamine, are biologically active amines mostly based on phenylethylamine, occurring in the body in trace amounts. They are a diverse group of naturally occurring and synthetic amines, which are also found in the diet and in herbal plants, such as ephedrine and cathinone. They include amphetamine and its analogues, such as MDMA ('ecstasy'), and synthetic proprietary sympathomimetic agents such as phenylpropanolamine and pseudoephedrine. On the vascular system they cause vasoconstriction and a rise in blood pressure. This effect is the basis of their use as nasal decongestants. For over 50 years, they have been assumed to be indirectly acting sympathomimetic amines, their responses being due to the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurones. There are, however, results that suggest that this is not their only mechanism of action and that they may also exert direct vascular effects independent of a noradrenergic mechanism. Recently, a group of novel trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) have been cloned and identified in the brain and peripheral tissues including blood vessels. Trace amines bind to these cloned receptors and it is suggested that their vasoconstrictor effects can in part be attributed to this mechanism. This review describes the cardiovascular pharmacology of this diverse group of amines, their structures and uses and their endogenous synthesis and metabolism. The review also considers their clinical relevance as constituents of the diet, as therapeutic agents (ritodrine, phenylpropanolamine, and pseudoephedrine) and as drugs of abuse (amphetamine, 'ecstasy') and their mechanisms of action.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2009; 125(3):363-75. DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.11.005
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ABSTRACT: Following administration of the anticancer agent, procarbazine, or one of its metabolites, monomethylhydrazine, to rats, activities of monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO A and MAO B) and of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) were measured ex-vivo. Both compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of SSAO in tissue homogenates, exhibiting ID50 values in most tissues of approximately 8 mg kg-1 (procarbazine) and 0.08 mg kg-1 (monomethylhydrazine). Concurrent dose-dependent inhibition of MAO activities did not occur. However, in liver, potentiation of MAO B activity, to 140% of that in controls, was apparent following monomethyl-hydrazine and this effect was independent of the drug dose. Both compounds produced a dose-dependent potentiation of MAO A in brown adipose tissue, the elevation being more pronounced following monomethylhydrazine, with activity rising to 350% of that in control homogenates. In a parallel in-vitro study, monomethylhydrazine was without effect on MAO A in brown adipose tissue homogenates. By perfusing the SSAO substrate, benzylamine, through the isolated mesenteric arterial bed of the rat, it was found that pretreatment of animals with procarbazine or monomethylhydrazine reduced metabolism of this amine by a similar degree as had been determined ex-vivo in blood vessel homogenates. The results presented suggest that these compounds would be suitable for use as selective inhibitors in pharmacological examinations of SSAO function in isolated tissues and organs.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11/1995; 47(10):837-45. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1995.tb05751.x