Inherited and acquired syndromes of hyperammonemia and encephalopathy in children.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford.
Seminars in Liver Disease (Impact Factor: 5.12). 09/1994; 14(3):236-58. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-1007315
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate the effect of Diallyl disulphide (DADS) on the lipid profile and antioxidant status in ammonium chloride (AC) induced hyperammonaemic rats. Methods: Male albino Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g were used for the study. The hyperammonemia was induced by interaperitonial injection (i.p) of AC (100 mg/kg body weight). Rats were treated with DADS (60 mg/kg body weight) via oral administration. The levels of lipid profiles; phospholipid, cholesterol and the antioxidants; catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), vitamin-C, vitamin-E were studied, open field behavioral test such as peripheral movement, central movement, rearing and grooming were also carried in control and experimental rats. Results: Administration of DADS in hyperammonaemic rats reduced the levels of lipid profiles and there by reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance during AC induced hyperammonemia, and offered protection against hyperammonemia. Behavioral activities were significantly decreased in DADS treated hyperammonaemic rats when compared with control rats. Conclusion: The study offers evidence for the antihyperammonaemic, hepatoprotective and a n t i o x i d a n t e f f e c t s o f DA D S a g a i n s t o x i d a t i v e s t r e s s i n d u c e d b y A C .
  • Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie 01/1999; 67(1):7-11. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-993732 · 0.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Psychotherapies have stronger empirical support of efficacy and do not have safety concerns associated with many medications; thus, at present, psychotherapy is an appropriate first-line treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior in youth. Integrated Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (I-CBT) and Multisystemic Therapy (MST) have the strongest preliminary evidence for psychotherapeutic treatment of suicidal behavior in preadolescents and adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior. Mentalization-Based Treatment for Adolescents (MBT-A), Developmental Group Psychotherapy (DGP), and Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) have received some support for youth engaging in non-suicidal and/or suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Resourceful Adolescent Parent Program (RAP-P) may be effective in reducing suicidal thoughts and/or self-injurious behaviors (Table 1). In children with a history of recurrent suicidal behavior and for whom psychotherapy alone is ineffective, psychopharmacological treatment may be necessary. Responsible pharmacological treatment of pediatric suicidal behavior requires understanding of the current dearth of efficacy evidence and the limitations of safety evidence within pediatric populations, the range of possible serious side effects, and the potential use of medications, including less toxic SSRIs (Barbey and Roose J Clin Psychiatry 59:42–8, 1998) [IV], as a suicide method. Time to effect of antidepressants may coincide with heightened suicide risk (Simon et al. Am J Psychiatr 163(1):41–7, 2006) [I], and, thus, patients should be monitored particularly closely during this time period. Psychotropic medications for pediatric patients should be part of a comprehensive and integrated treatment and monitoring strategy, including therapeutic drug monitoring and coordinated communication among providers, caregivers, and patients. Although suicide attempts in children younger than five are extremely rare, they do occur (Rosenthal and Rosenthal Am J Psychiatr 141(4):520–25, 1984) [IV]; treatment will focus on family factors and will typically employ dyadic models of psychotherapy to develop or reestablish co-regulation between the child and the caregiver.
    03/2014; 1(1). DOI:10.1007/s40501-014-0008-3