Carbonic anhydrase II mRNA expression in individual osteoclasts under "resorbing" and "nonresorbing" conditions.

MRC Group in Periodontal Physiology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (Impact Factor: 6.13). 08/1994; 9(7):1115-22. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.5650090720
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rabbit osteoclasts can be transformed from a nonresorbing state to a resorbing state by transferring them from culture medium at pH 7.5 to one at pH 6.5. We evaluated whether expression of mRNA for carbonic anhydrase (CA-II) could be used as an indicator of the state of activity of individual osteoclasts. A cDNA probe to rabbit carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) was prepared and used for in situ hybridization analysis of osteoclasts isolated from neonatal rabbit long bones. Quantitation by grain counting revealed heterogeneity within the osteoclast population: osteoclasts with a "compact" (rounded, less spread) morphology expressed higher levels of CA-II mRNA than "spread" osteoclasts with similar numbers of nuclei. When maintained at pH 6.5 for 6 h, the level of CA-II mRNA was increased significantly in osteoclasts of both morphologies compared with those in parallel cultures maintained at pH 7.5. These results were confirmed by quantitating CA-II mRNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Oligonucleotide primers specific for rabbit CA-II were synthesized and used to amplify CA-II cDNA transcribed from mRNA prepared from single or small numbers (one to eight cells) of osteoclasts that were collected with a micromanipulator. This generated a approximately 510 bp PCR product, corresponding to the predicted size of the CA-II fragment encompassed by the primers. For quantitation, CA-II mRNA levels were compared with the levels of a approximately 900 bp actin fragment that was coamplified in the same reaction mixture or amplified separately in a duplicate sample of the reaction mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is clinically characterized by degeneration of the joints and has been traditionally considered a primary disorder of articular cartilage, with secondary changes in the subchondral bone. The increased bone mass and generalized changes in bone quality observed in osteoarthritic patients suggest that OA may be a primary systemic bone disorder with secondary articular cartilage damage. The iliac crest is a skeletal site distant from the affected joint, with a minimal load-bearing function. To provide evidence that OA is a systemic disorder, we searched for differentially expressed genes in the iliac crest bone of patients suffering from hip OA. Gene expression levels between bone samples collected at surgery from the iliac crest of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for primary OA and younger donors, who were undergoing spinal arthrodesis, were investigated by means of oligonucleotide microarrays. To verify data detected by microarrays technology, Real Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assays were performed with specimens from osteoarthritic patients and donors, as well as from elderly donors who were undergoing arthroplasty for subcapital femoral neck fracture. The microarray analysis surveyed 8327 genes and identified 83 whose expression levels differed at least 1.5-fold in the OA group (P<0.005). Comparisons between Real Time RT-PCR data from OA and the two donor groups indicated differential expression of genes involved in bone cell functions in the group of OA patients. The genes identified, including CCL2, FOS, PRSS11, DVL2, AKT1, CA2, BMP6, OMD, MMP2, TGFBR3, FLT1, BMP1 and TNFRS11B, have known roles in osteoblast or osteoclast activities. The data from this study identify a set of genes, closely related to bone cell functions, in which differential regulation in osteoarthritic bone distant from the diseased subchondral bone might underlie the etiopathogenesis of OA as a generalized bone disease.
    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 03/2009; 17(8):1106-14. · 4.26 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteopetrosis is the result of mutations affecting osteoclast function. Careful analyses of osteopetrosis have provided instrumental information on bone remodeling, including the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption. Based on a range of novel genetic mutations and the resulting osteoclast phenotypes, we discuss how osteopetrosis models have clarified the function of the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption, and the pivotal role of the osteoclast and their function in this phenomenon. We highlight the distinct possibility that osteoclast activities can be divided into two separate avenues: bone resorption and control of bone formation.
    Human Genetics 12/2008; 124(6):561-77. · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone diseases such as osteoporosis are mainly caused by upregulated activity of osteoclasts. The present study was designed to examine the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the formation and activity of multinucleated osteoclasts, specifically "round-shaped" osteoclast cells (ROC) in different cell types derived from mouse. After 635-nm LED irradiation, the cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. The amount of total tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) + osteoclast and the number of ROC cells were also estimated by TRAP solution assay and TRAP staining, respectively. Actin rings were stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin, and resorption assay was performed by dentin slices. In addition, gene expression levels between the control and irradiation groups were evaluated by RT-PCR. In a morphological analysis, the formation of ROC was significantly inhibited by 635-nm LED irradiation in the different cell types. Actin rings were seen at cell peripheries in most ROC cells of the control group, but patches containing disorganized actin were found in the irradiation group. Both the number of ROCs and bone resorption activity were much lower in the irradiation group than in the control group. Also, the gene expression levels involved in actin ring formation such as integrin β3 and c-Src decreased in RT-PCR analysis. Overall, 635-nm LED therapy may play a pivotal role in regulating bone remodeling, and it may prove to be a valuable tool to prevent bone loss in osteoporosis and other resorptive bone diseases.
    Lasers in Medical Science 06/2013; · 2.40 Impact Factor