Schizophrenic psychopathology is heterogeneous and multidimensional. Various strategies have been developed over the past several years to assess and measure more accurately discrete domains of psychopathology. One of the more fruitful strategies to investigate more homogenous domains of psychopathology has been the positive-negative syndrome approach. However, this approach is unable to address a number of important issues. Most schizophrenics present a mixed syndrome; the criteria for what constitutes a positive and negative syndrome are variable; distinguishing primary from secondary negative symptoms can be difficult. In order to address some of these problems, we propose the introduction of a five-syndrome model based on a reanalysis of factor analytic procedures used on 240 schizophrenics assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We present data on a five-factor solution that appears to best fit the psychopathological data and that is supported by three independent and comparable factor analyses; negative, positive, excitement, cognitive, and depression/anxiety domains of psychopathology give patients their individual mark. Data on internal consistency of the five factors and on initial validation using demographic and clinical variables are presented.
"BDD and OCD groups only also completed the Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS) (Eisen et al., 1998) and the Peters' Delusional Inventory (PDI) (Peters et al., 1999) to assess insight and delusionality, in addition to the Y-BOCS and BDD-YBOCS as noted above. Symptoms were assessed for the SCZ group with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) (Kay et al., 1987) which was scored using a 5 factor model that included orthogonal factors for positive, negative, cognitive, depression, and excitement symptoms (Lindenmayer et al., 1994a, 1994b, 1995a, 1995b). We also derived a separate disorganization factor (Cuesta and Peralta, 1995), and focused specifically on item P2, conceptual disorganization, given prior observed relationships between reduced PO, including CI, and reduced thought organization in SCZ (Uhlhaas and Silverstein, 2005; Silverstein and Keane, 2011). "
"After extracting and specifying more than 20 alternative models from the literature, we compare the fit indices of the CFA models when data clustering is ignored or considered. Published models that include a smaller number of PANSS items, such as Peralta et al. (1992); Strauss et al. (1974); Kay and Sevy (1990); Peralta et al. (1994), and Lindenmayer et al. (1994a), were not estimated. The results in Table 5 reveal that none of the models fit the data acceptably when the clustering is ignored. "
"For the purposes of this study, we used factor analytically derived positive, negative, cognitive, and emotional discom-fort components of the PANSS . Evidence supporting the use of factor analytic solutions for the PANSS has been reported by numerous other investigators . Inter-rater reliability as assessed for raters in this study found good to excellent intra-class correlations on all scale scores with intra-class correlations ranging from 0.80 to 0.93. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While research continues to document the impact of internalized stigma among persons with schizophrenia, little is known about the factors which promote stigma resistance or the ability to recognize and reject stigma. This study aimed to replicate previous findings linking stigma resistance with lesser levels of depression and higher levels of self-esteem while also examining the extent to which other factors, including metacognitive capacity and positive and negative symptoms, are linked to the ability to resist stigma.
Participants were 62 adults with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who completed self-reports of stigma resistance, internalized stigma, self-esteem, and rater assessments of positive, negative, disorganization, and emotional discomfort symptoms, and metacognitive capacity.
Stigma resistance was significantly correlated with lower levels of acceptance of stereotypes of mental illness, negative symptoms, and higher levels of metacognitive capacity, and self-esteem. A stepwise multiple regression revealed that acceptance of stereotypes of mental illness, metacognitive capacity, and self-esteem all uniquely contributed to greater levels of stigma resistance, accounting for 39% of the variance.
Stigma resistance is related to, but not synonymous with, internalized stigma. Greater metacognitive capacity, better self-esteem, and fewer negative symptoms may be factors which facilitate stigma resistance.
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