Regional brain abnormalities in schizophrenia measured with magnetic resonance imaging.
ABSTRACT To determine general and regional indices of structural brain abnormality in schizophrenia.
Case-control comparison study.
Fifty-two patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition, were compared with 90 healthy volunteers recruited from the community.
Structural brain images were acquired using magnetic resonance; measurements were obtained using three-dimensional visualization of volume-rendered brains and an automated atlas-based dissection of specific regions. General measures included the volume of total brain tissue, total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and CSF within the ventricular system. Regional measures included the volume of tissue and CSF in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes and the cerebellum.
Compared with the controls, the patients had a smaller average volume of total brain tissue and a greater average volume of total and ventricular CSF. A specific relative decrease in brain tissue was found only in the frontal lobes, although the volume of CSF was greater in patients than in controls in all brain regions.
In addition to the generalized brain abnormalities observed in schizophrenia, a regional abnormality may be present in frontal regions. Since the frontal lobes integrate multimodality information and perform a variety of "higher" cognitive and emotional functions that are impaired in schizophrenia, the frontal abnormality noted is consistent with the clinical presentation of the illness. Impaired frontal function and a disruption in its complex circuitry (including thalamocortical projections) may explain why patients with schizophrenia often have significant deficits in formulating concepts and organizing their thinking and behavior.
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- Biological Psychiatry 07/1997; 42(1):264S. · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they occur in the human brain. We report the first meta-analysis of typical sex differences on global brain volume, a descriptive account of the breakdown of studies of each compartmental volume by six age categories, and whole-brain voxel-wise meta-analyses on brain volume and density. Gaussian-process regression coordinate-based meta-analysis was used to examine sex differences in voxel-based regional volume and density. On average, males have larger total brain volumes than females. Examination of the breakdown of studies providing total volumes by age categories indicated a bias towards the 18-59 year-old category. Regional sex differences in volume and tissue density include the amygdala, hippocampus and insula, areas known to be implicated in sex-biased neuropsychiatric conditions. Together, these results suggest candidate regions for investigating the asymmetric effect that sex has on the developing brain, and for understanding sex-biased neurological and psychiatric conditions.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 12/2013; · 10.28 Impact Factor