The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of passive and active recovery on the resynthesis of muscle glycogen after high-intensity cycle ergometer exercise in untrained subjects. In a cross-over design, six college-aged males performed three, 1-min exercise bouts at approximately 130% VO2max with a 4-min rest period between each work bout. The exercise protocol for each trial was identical, while the recovery following exercise was either active (30 min at 40-50% VO2max, 30-min seated rest) or passive (60-min seated rest). Initial muscle glycogen values averaged 144.2 +/- 3.8 mmol.kg-1 w.w. for the active trial and 158.7 +/- 8.0 mmol.kg-1 w.w. for the passive trial. Corresponding immediate postexercise glycogen contents were 97.7 +/- 5.4 and 106.8 +/- 4.7 mmol.kg-1 w.w., respectively. These differences between treatments were not significant. However, mean muscle glycogen after 60 min of passive recovery increased 15.0 +/- 4.9 mmol.kg-1 w.w., whereas it decreased 6.3 +/- 3.7 mmol.kg-1 w.w. following the 60 min active recovery protocol (P < 0.05). Also, the decrease in blood lactate concentration during active recovery was greater than during passive recovery and significantly different at 10 and 30 min of the recovery period (P < 0.05). These data suggest that the use of passive recovery following intense exercise results in a greater amount of muscle glycogen resynthesis than active recovery over the same duration.
"As mentioned above, lactate is a major source of carbon for the replenishment of glycogen stores in the absence of nutritional intake. Because of this, several studies have suggested that maintaining a level of activity, even low, generates oxidative activity, which may decrease the lactate available for glycogen resynthesis (Choi et al. 1994; Fairchild et al. 2003). We did not directly measure glycogen levels in the current study; however, V ˙ O 2 and the oxygen saturation index of the lateral gastrocnemius muscle were recorded during recovery with all methods. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test how low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES; Veinoplus Sport (AdRem Technology, Paris, France)) of the calf muscles affects recovery indices compared with 2 other commonly used recovery methods (active, ACT; passive, PAS). The tests used assessed predominantly anaerobic performance after short-term (15 min) recovery, and the kinetics of blood markers. Fourteen highly trained female handball players completed 2 Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery tests (level 2; YYIR2) separated by a 15-min recovery period. During recovery, 1 of 3 recovery methods (ACT, LFES or PAS) was randomly selected. Performance (i.e., distance run) was measured at the end of each YYIR2 test. Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate concentrations, heart rate, respiratory gas exchange and tissue saturation index for the lateral gastrocnemius were recorded. LFES showed a very likely beneficial effect on performance during the second YYIR2 relative to PAS and a possible beneficial effect relative to ACT (distance Pre vs. Post; LFES: -1.8%; ACT: -7.6%; PAS: -15.9%). Compared with PAS recovery, LFES and ACT recovery clearly showed a faster return to baseline for blood lactate, pH and bicarbonate concentrations during the recovery period. LFES of the calf muscles and, to a lesser extent, ACT recovery appear to effectively improve short-term recovery between 2 bouts of exhausting exercises. These methods could be of benefit if applied during half-time, for sports involving successive rounds, or where only a limited recovery period is available.
"Another point is that blood glucose concentration plays an important role in restoring muscle glycogen during recovery from exercise . Unfortunately, little is known about the crucial role of blood flow and its association to glucose uptake, during recovery from high intensity exercise  and so far no study investigated this matter in connection with the application of compression clothing. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ∼37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79) and BF (P = 0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P = 0.41) and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P = 0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ∼37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60923. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060923 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Nowadays, athletes therefore use a wide variety of passive strategies to accelerate short-term recovery. These passive strategies present the advantage to result in a greater amount of muscle glycogen resynthesis than active strategies (as active recovery) over the same duration (Choi et al. 1994). Compression garments and water immersion (including hot, cold and contrast water) are examples of passive strategies often studied and reviewed (Barnett 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of contrast water therapy (CWT) or compression stockings (CS) during recovery, using subsequent performance as the principal outcome measure. However, data in the literature are contradictory, mainly because of the methodology used. Purpose: Based on well-controlled performance measures, this study aimed to compare the effects of CWT, CS or passive recovery (PR) on subsequent performance. Methods: After inclusion based on reproducibility criteria (intra-participant variability in performance test lower than the expected differences between the recovery interventions, i.e. 1.5%), 12 competitive male cyclists (peak power output: 5.0 ± 0.2 W/kg; cycling practice: 4.9 ± 0.4 times/week; intra-participant variability: 1.2 ± 0.2%) came to the laboratory three times in a random crossover design. Each time visit, they performed a tiring exercise on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 5-min performance test during which the mean power output was recorded, separated by a 15-min recovery period during which a 12-min PR, CWT (1:2 (cold: 10-12°C to warm: 36-38°C) min ratio) or CS (~20 mmHg) was implemented. Results: Compared with PR (353.8 ± 13.1 W), performance was significantly higher after CWT (368.1 ± 12.3 W) and CS (360.5 ± 14.8 W). Moreover, performance was significantly higher after CWT than after CS. Conclusion: Athletes can use this information as a way of improving their performance in competition format using repeated high-intensity exercises in a short period of time, such as in mountain bike, track or BMX races. Moreover, these data reinforce interest for researchers to consider performance tests with high test-retest reproducibility, especially when small but real benefits are expected.
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