Effect of passive and active recovery on the resynthesis of muscle glycogen.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of passive and active recovery on the resynthesis of muscle glycogen after high-intensity cycle ergometer exercise in untrained subjects. In a cross-over design, six college-aged males performed three, 1-min exercise bouts at approximately 130% VO2max with a 4-min rest period between each work bout. The exercise protocol for each trial was identical, while the recovery following exercise was either active (30 min at 40-50% VO2max, 30-min seated rest) or passive (60-min seated rest). Initial muscle glycogen values averaged 144.2 +/- 3.8 mmol.kg-1 w.w. for the active trial and 158.7 +/- 8.0 mmol.kg-1 w.w. for the passive trial. Corresponding immediate postexercise glycogen contents were 97.7 +/- 5.4 and 106.8 +/- 4.7 mmol.kg-1 w.w., respectively. These differences between treatments were not significant. However, mean muscle glycogen after 60 min of passive recovery increased 15.0 +/- 4.9 mmol.kg-1 w.w., whereas it decreased 6.3 +/- 3.7 mmol.kg-1 w.w. following the 60 min active recovery protocol (P < 0.05). Also, the decrease in blood lactate concentration during active recovery was greater than during passive recovery and significantly different at 10 and 30 min of the recovery period (P < 0.05). These data suggest that the use of passive recovery following intense exercise results in a greater amount of muscle glycogen resynthesis than active recovery over the same duration.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore the reliability of estimating three-dimensional (3D) linear kinematics and kinetics of a swimmer derived from digitized video and to assess the effect of framing rate and smoothing window size. A stroke cycle of two high-level front crawl swimmers and one high level backstroke swimmer was recorded by four underwater and two above water video cameras. One of the front crawl swimmers was recorded and digitized at 50 Hz with a window for smoothing by 4(th) order Butterworth digital filter extending 10 frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle, while the other front crawl and backstroke swimmer were recorded and digitized at 25 Hz with the window extending five frames beyond the start and finish of the stroke cycle. Each camera view of the stroke cycle was digitized five times yielding five independent 3D data sets from which whole body centre of mass (CM) component velocities and accelerations were derived together with wrist and ankle linear velocities. Coefficients of reliability ranging from r = 0.942 to r = 0.999 indicated that both methods are sufficiently reliable to identify real differences in net force production during the pulls of the right and left hands. Reliability of digitizing was better for front crawl when digitizing at 50Hz with 10 frames extension than at 25 Hz with 5 frames extension (p < 0.01) and better for backstroke than front crawl (p < 0.01). However, despite the extension and reflection of data, errors were larger in the first 15% of the stroke cycle than the period between 15 and 85% of the stroke cycle for CM velocity and acceleration and for foot speed (p < 0.01). Key pointsAn inverse dynamics based on 3D position data digitized from multiple camera views above and below the water surface is sufficiently reliable to yield insights regarding force production in swimming additional to those of other approaches.The ability to link the force profiles to swimming actions and technique is enhanced by having additional data such as wrist and foot velocities that can be obtained readily from the digitized data.Sampling at 25 Hz with at least 5 samples before and after the period of interest is required for reliable data when using a 4th Order Butterworth Digital Filter.Journal of sports science & medicine 06/2015; 14(2):441-51. · 0.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Children's performance after intense exercise is known to recover faster than that of adults. However, very little is known about the physiological processes that differentiate children from adults in their recovery. The purpose of this study was to compare, in children, the decrease in blood lactate concentration ([La]) during various intensities of active recovery from highly intense exercise with that during passive recovery. Subjects were 15 healthy, physically active, prepubertal, 9- to 11-yr-old boys (N = 8) and girls (N = 7). Subjects performed three 40-s cycling bouts at 150% peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), with two 50-s rest intervals, followed by 2 min of passive recovery and 23 min of one of four randomly-assigned recovery levels: passive and 40%, 50%, and 60% VO2peak (RP, R40, R50, and R60, respectively). Mean values of peak [La] (by treatment) ranged between 9.9 +/- 1.5 and 10.8 +/- 2.0. Whereas HR and VO2 remained relatively higher, [La] decreased faster during all active recoveries compared with the passive mode. [La] during R60 was higher compared with [La] during R40. [La] was slightly higher in the first 10 min of R40 compared with R50, whereas from the 15th min onward, this difference was reversed. A similar pattern was seen in the boys and girls, separately. The calculated half-life of [La] was significantly higher during the passive compared with all three active recoveries, with no differences among the latter (22.0 +/- 5.0, 10.3 +/- 1.9, 10.5 +/- 2.2, and 11.5 +/- 2.1 min during RP, R40, R50, and R60, respectively). In summary, similar to the case in adults, the decrease in [La] after intense exercise in children is faster during active recovery compared with the passive mode. Further research is required to determine whether performance recovery parallels that of [La] in children and adults of both genders.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 04/2000; 32(3):564-70. DOI:10.1097/00005768-200003000-00003 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY The research was realized by case studies. The object of the research was 22 years old gymnast who graduated during two days two sets on the floor exercises with 30 minute rest. During the first measurement a gymnast inhaled the placebo and subsequently he did the assembly, then we measured the lactate during 1,3,7,15 and 23 minutes after the end of the load. After the last measurement he started inhale concentrate of oxygen and followed the same assembly after which we used same methodology and we measured his lactate. The next day he did the assembly with same load, with those, that at the first assembly was applied the oxygen and during the other the placebo. The results showed lower anaerobic cover after inhalation of oxygen and faster remetabolisation of lactate compared to inhalation of the placebo. KEY WORDS: hyperoxia, set on the floor exercise, recoveryZborník z medzinárodnej vedeckej konferencie Kondičný tréning v roku 2014, Banská Bystrica, SLOVAKIA; 11/2014