Mentholated cigarettes decrease puff volume of smoke and increase carbon monoxide absorption

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
Physiology & Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.98). 10/1994; 56(3):563-70. DOI: 10.1016/0031-9384(94)90302-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of mentholated vs. regular cigarettes on selected chemical and topographic parameters was measured in 20 smokers in a pulmonary function laboratory. Half the subjects were black and half were white; half were menthol and half regular smokers. All subjects smoked both types of cigarettes, one on each of 2 days. Compared to regular cigarettes, mentholated cigarettes produced a significantly greater boost in carbon monoxide measured as both blood carboxyhemoglobin and end-expired carbon monoxide, despite the fact that mentholated cigarettes decreased average and total cumulative puff volumes and increased mean puff flow rates of inhaled smoke. These chemical and topographic differences were independent of race. No significant differences in depth of inhalation of the smoke or in the amount of insoluble smoke particulates delivered to or retained in the respiratory tract were noted between the two types of cigarettes. Mentholation of cigarettes may decrease volume of smoke inhaled but appears to increase exposure of smokers to toxic effects of carbon monoxide.

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    • "Puff volumes were reported in six studies. A decrease in puff volume with mentholated cigarettes was reported in four of the studies, three of which were significant (Nil and Battig, 1989; Jarvik et al., 1994; McCarthy et al., 1995) and one not significant (Ahijevych et al., 1996). One study reported similar puff volumes for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes (Miller et al., 1994) and one reported a significant increase in puff volume associated with menthol cigarettes (Ahijevych and Parsley, 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Menthol can reduce sensory irritation and it has been hypothesised that this could result in smokers of mentholated cigarettes taking larger puffs and deeper post-puff inhalations thereby obtaining higher exposures to smoke constituents than smokers of non-mentholated cigarettes. The aim of our study was to use part-filter analysis methodology to assess the effects of cigarette menthol loading on regular and occasional smokers of mentholated cigarettes. We measured mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine and investigated the effects of mentholation on smokers' sensory perceptions such as cooling and irritation. Test cigarettes were produced containing no menthol and different loadings of synthetic and natural l-menthol at 1 and 4mg ISO tar yields. A target of 100 smokers of menthol cigarettes and 100 smokers who predominantly smoked non-menthol cigarettes from both 1 and 4mg ISO tar yield categories were recruited in Poland and Japan. Each subject was required to smoke the test cigarette types of their usual ISO tar yield. There were positive relationships between menthol loading and the perceived 'strength of menthol taste' and 'cooling' effect. However, we did not see marked menthol-induced reductions in perceived irritation or menthol-induced increases in mouth level exposure to tar and nicotine.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 05/2012; 63(3):381-90. DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.04.010 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Seven studies measured the effect of mentholation on number of puffs per cigarette (puff frequency) and the data for number of puffs per menthol cigarette vs. non-menthol cigarette are mixed (see Table 2). Jarvik et al [33] found that subjects took a smaller number of puffs from menthol cigarettes (p < .05), and that cumulative puff volume (number of puffs multiplied by volume of puffs) was smaller for smoking menthol cigarettes than it was for smoking non-menthol cigarettes (p < .001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette) has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol's sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol's effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.
    Tobacco Induced Diseases 05/2011; 9 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S3. DOI:10.1186/1617-9625-9-S1-S3 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Of six studies on puff volume, two studies [26,27] found no effect, three [29-31] a significant decrease when smoking mentholated cigarettes, and one [32] a significant increase. While three studies [26,33,34] found an increase in CO level associated with mentholation (and one [30] claimed an increase not apparent from the analyses presented), many studies [25,28,29,31,35-39] found no effect of mentholation, and one [27] reported reduced CO in mentholated cigarette smokers. Three studies [32-34] reported a significant increase in cotinine level associated with mentholation, but nine studies [27,37-44] did not, one of these[39] being based on more subjects (3,341) than all the other studies combined. "
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    ABSTRACT: US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use.The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0.73-1.10, n = 4). Estimates for current and ever smokers are similar. The combined estimate for long-term use (0.95, 0.80-1.13, n = 4) again suggests no effect of mentholation. Higher lung cancer rates in Black males cannot be due to their greater preference for mentholated cigarettes. While some study weaknesses exist, the epidemiological evidence is consistent with mentholation having no effect on the lung carcinogenicity of cigarettes.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 04/2011; 11(1):18. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-11-18 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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