Mentholated cigarettes decrease puff volume of smoke and increase carbon monoxide absorption.
ABSTRACT The influence of mentholated vs. regular cigarettes on selected chemical and topographic parameters was measured in 20 smokers in a pulmonary function laboratory. Half the subjects were black and half were white; half were menthol and half regular smokers. All subjects smoked both types of cigarettes, one on each of 2 days. Compared to regular cigarettes, mentholated cigarettes produced a significantly greater boost in carbon monoxide measured as both blood carboxyhemoglobin and end-expired carbon monoxide, despite the fact that mentholated cigarettes decreased average and total cumulative puff volumes and increased mean puff flow rates of inhaled smoke. These chemical and topographic differences were independent of race. No significant differences in depth of inhalation of the smoke or in the amount of insoluble smoke particulates delivered to or retained in the respiratory tract were noted between the two types of cigarettes. Mentholation of cigarettes may decrease volume of smoke inhaled but appears to increase exposure of smokers to toxic effects of carbon monoxide.
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ABSTRACT: Menthol is the only tobacco additive promoted and advertised by the tobacco industry. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of menthol when it is administered alone and unburned, the effects of menthol when burned in cigarette smoke are more complex because it is administered in a matrix of more than 4,000 substances. Therefore, it is difficult to isolate potential pharmacological and toxic effects of menthol when it is administered in a smoke mixture. Menthol properties include cooling and local anesthesia, as well as effects on drug absorption and metabolism, bronchodilation and respiration changes, and electrophysiology. Subjective effects of smoothness and less harshness have been identified as reasons for menthol cigarette smoking, but findings have been inconclusive regarding the effect of menthol on carbon monoxide exposure and smoking topography parameters. Gaps in the research literature and future research areas include the following: (a) What is the role of menthol in tobacco reinforcement and addiction? (b) In the absence of nicotine, is menthol reinforcing? (c) Are the pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol mediated by a menthol-specific receptor or some other central nervous system-mediated action? (d) What are the influences of menthol and menthol metabolism on the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens in tobacco smoke? and (e) Do differences exist in cigarette smoking topography in relation to the interaction of ethnicity, gender, and menthol cigarette preference? Answers to these questions will help to elucidate the function of menthol in cigarettes and its impact on smoking behavior.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2004; 6 Suppl 1:S17-28. DOI:10.1080/14622200310001649469 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Approximately one-fourth of all cigarettes sold in the United States are mentholated. An understanding of the consequences, patterns, and correlates of menthol cigarette use can guide the development and implementation of strategies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable morbidity and mortality. This paper summarizes the literature on the health effects of mentholated cigarettes and describes various patterns of use as indicated by consumption and survey data from the United States and other nations. The epidemiological literature on menthol cigarettes and cancer risk is inconclusive regarding whether these cigarettes confer a risk for cancer above that of nonmentholated varieties. Available data indicate that mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous as their nonmentholated counterparts. In addition, because mentholation improves the taste of cigarettes for a substantial segment of the smoking population and appears to mask disease symptoms, this additive may facilitate initiation or inhibit quitting. Menthol market share is high in the Philippines (60%), Cameroon (35%-40%), Hong Kong (26%), the United States (26%), and Singapore (22%). Newport has become the leading menthol brand in the United States. Surveys from four nations indicate that menthol use among adult smokers is more common among females than males. Among U.S. smokers, 68.9% of Blacks, 29.2% of Hispanics, and 22.4% of Whites reported smoking a mentholated variety. Research is needed to better explain factors that may influence menthol preference, such as marketing, risk perceptions, brand formulation, and taste preferences. Such research would guide the development of potentially more effective programs and policies.Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2004; 6 Suppl 1:S67-81. DOI:10.1080/14622203710001649696 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Menthol cigarettes are likely associated with greater risks of smoking dependence than non-menthol cigarettes. We sought to test the hypothesis that menthol increases the rate of brain nicotine accumulation (BNA) during smoking and thereby enhances its addictive effects. In a counter-balanced cross-over design, 10 menthol and 9 non-menthol smokers (10 females and 9 males; mean age 44.3) underwent two study phases. In each phase the participant smoked exclusively either menthol or non-menthol research cigarettes for approximately 1 week prior to a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scan session, during which the subject's head was scanned following inhalation of a single puff of smoke from a cigarette containing (11)C-nicotine. No differences in initial slope, Cmax, area under curve (AUC), and T1/2 of BNA were found between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across all subjects; however, menthol relative to non-menthol cigarettes were associated with steeper initial slopes in men (p =.008). Unexpectedly, women had faster BNA as indicated by greater values of the initial slope, Cmax, AUC and shorter T1/2 than men (all ps <.04). The rates of BNA were significantly correlated with ratings of smoking motivations of getting a "rush", getting relaxing effects and marginally with alleviation of craving. These results do not provide strong support for the putative role of menthol in enhancing BNA, although further studies should explore the apparent effect of menthol on BNA in men. Fast BNA during smoking and preference of sensory properties of menthol cigarettes may independently or jointly contribute to smoking dependence among women.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 30 September 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.263.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2014; 40(4). DOI:10.1038/npp.2014.263 · 7.83 Impact Factor