Subcellular localization and trafficking of the GLUT4 glucose transporter isoform in insulin-responsive cells.
ABSTRACT The rate-limiting step in the uptake and metabolism of D-glucose by insulin target cells is thought to be glucose transport mediated by glucose transporters (primarily the GLUT4 isoform) localized to the plasma membrane. However, subcellular fractionation, photolabelling and immunocytochemical studies have shown that the pool of GLUT4 present in the plasma membrane is only one of many subcellular pools of this protein. GLUT4 has been found in occluded vesicles at the plasma membrane, clathrin-coated pits and vesicles, early endosomes, and tubulo-vesicular structures; the latter are analogous to known specialized secretory compartments. Tracking the movement of GLUT4 through these compartments, and defining the mechanism and site of action of insulin in stimulating this subcellular trafficking, are major topics of current investigation. Recent evidence focuses attention on the exocytosis of GLUT4 as the major site of insulin action. Increased exocytosis may be due to decreased retention of glucose transporters in an intracellular pool, or possibly to increased assembly of a vesicle docking and fusion complex. Although details are unknown, the presence in GLUT4 vesicles of a synaptobrevin homologue leads us to propose that a process analogous to that occurring in synaptic vesicle trafficking is involved in the assembly of GLUT4 vesicles into a form suitable for fusion with the plasma membrane. Evidence that the pathways of signalling from the insulin receptor and of GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis may converge at the level of the key signalling enzyme, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, is discussed.
- SourceAvailable from: Alain Chavanieu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies raised against the 85-kDa subunit (p85) of bovine phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase were found to recognize uncomplexed p85 or p85 in the active PI 3-kinase. Immunoprecipitation studies of Chinese hamster ovary cells, which overexpress the human insulin receptor when treated with insulin, showed increased amounts of p85 and PI 3-kinase activity immunoprecipitable with monoclonal anti-p85 antibody and no increase in the tyrosine phosphorylation of p85. Insulin also induced an association of p85 with the tyrosine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and other phosphorylated proteins ranging in size from 100 to 170 kDa but not with the activated insulin receptor. In vitro reconstitution studies were used to show p85 in the active PI 3-kinase associated with the tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1 but not with the activated insulin receptor. Competition studies using synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to potential tyrosine phosphorylation sites of IRS-1 revealed that phosphopeptides containing YMXM motifs inhibited this association with different potencies, whereas nonphosphorylated analogues and a phosphopeptide containing the EYYE motif had no effect. Src homology region 2 domains of p85 expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins also bound to tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS-1. These results suggest that insulin causes the association of PI 3-kinase with IRS-1 via phosphorylated YMXM motifs of IRS-1 and Src homology region 2 domains of p85.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1993; 267(36):25958-65. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have isolated the cDNA for Rab3D, an additional member of the small molecular weight GTP-binding protein family. Rab3D message is abundant in mouse adipocytes. It is increased during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes, temporally coincident with the appearance of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter GLUT4. Rab3D is a close homolog of Rab3A, which is found on the cytoplasmic surface of neurosecretory vesicles and which may be involved in their regulated secretion. Since our previous work showed that in permeabilized adipocytes nonhydrolizable GTP analogs mimic insulin in triggering exocytosis of GLUT4-containing vesicles, Rab3D may be involved in the insulin-induced exocytosis of GLUT4-containing vesicles in adipocytes.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/1992; 89(11):5049-52. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Expression of chimeras, composed of portions of two different glucose transporter isoforms (GLUT-1 and GLUT-4), in CHO cells had indicated that the cytoplasmic NH2 terminus of GLUT-4 contains important targeting information that mediates intracellular sequestration of this isoform (Piper, R. C., C. Tai, J. W. Slot, C. S. Hahn, C. M. Rice, H. Huang, D. E. James. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:729-743). In the present studies, the amino acid constituents of the GLUT-4 NH2-terminal targeting domain have been identified. GLUT-4 constructs containing NH2-terminal deletions or alanine substitutions within the NH2 terminus were expressed in CHO cells using a Sindbis virus expression system. Deletion of eight amino acids from the GLUT-4 NH2 terminus or substituting alanine for phenylalanine at position 5 in GLUT-4 resulted in a marked accumulation of the transporter at the plasma membrane. Mutations at other amino acids surrounding Phe5 also caused increased cell surface expression of GLUT-4 but not to the same extent as the Phe5 mutation. GLUT-4 was also localized to clathrin lattices and this colocalization was abolished when either the first 13 amino acids were deleted or when Phe5 was changed to alanine. To ascertain whether the targeting information within the GLUT-4 NH2-terminal targeting domain could function independently of the glucose transporter structure this domain was inserted into the cytoplasmic tail of the H1 subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. H1 with the GLUT-4 NH2 terminus was predominantly localized to an intracellular compartment similar to GLUT-4 and was sequestered more from the cell surface than was the wild-type H1 protein. It is concluded that the NH2 terminus of GLUT-4 contains a phenylalanine-based targeting motif that mediates intracellular sequestration at least in part by facilitating interaction of the transporter with endocytic machinery located at the cell surface.The Journal of Cell Biology 07/1993; 121(6):1221-32. · 10.82 Impact Factor