Changes in blood glucose concentration in the carotid body-sinus modify brain glucose retention.
ABSTRACT To test whether blood glucose concentration in the carotid body-sinus may influence the amount of glucose retained by the brain, the isolated carotid sinus was perfused with glucose-rich blood or glucose-poor blood from a second animal. The circulation of the right carotid body-sinus was temporarily isolated in rat A, and perfused with blood coming from rat B. Blood glucose in rat B was modified by injections of glucose or insulin. Changes in glucose retention by the brain were measured in rat A. When the isolated carotid body-sinus in rat A was perfused with hyperglycemic blood (16.7 mM), brain glucose retention in rat A decreased significantly from 0.14 +/- 0.02 mumol/g/min (t = 0) to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mumol/g/min at 4 min after the beginning of perfusion. In contrast, the perfusion of the isolated carotid body-sinus of rat A with hypoglycemic blood (2.7 mM) from rat B, had the opposite effect. Brain glucose retention in rat A increased (0.23 +/- 0.03 mumol/g/min) at t = 4 min in comparison to control values (0.13 +/- 0.01 mumol/g/min). Chemoreceptor activity was also manipulated by the injection of cyanide (NaCN) in rat B, under these conditions, brain glucose retention in rat A increased from 0.13 +/- 0.01 mumol/g/min to 0.28 +/- 0.03 mumol/g/min between 4 to 8 min after the beginning of perfusion. These results indicate that chemosensory activity within the carotid body-sinus, superfused in vivo with different glucose concentrations, modify glucose retention by the brain.
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ABSTRACT: Carotid body chemoreceptors function as glucose sensors and contribute to glucose homeostasis. The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the first central nervous system (CNS) nuclei for processing of information arising in the carotid body. Here, we microinjected a nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO-independent activator of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) (YC1) or an NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nω- nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) into the commissural NTS (cNTS) before carotid chemoreceptor anoxic stimulation and measured arterial glucose and the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were anesthetized, and the carotid sinus was vascularly isolated. Either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), SNP, YC1 or L-NAME were stereotaxically injected into the cNTS. The SNP and YC1 infused into the cNTS before carotid chemoreceptor stimulation (SNP-2 and YC1-2 groups) similarly increased arterial glucose compared to the aCSF-2 group. By contrast, infusion of l-NAME into the cNTS before carotid chemoreceptor stimulation (l-NAME-2 group) decreased arterial glucose concentration. The number of cNTS Fos-ir neurons, determined in all the groups studied except for YC1 groups, significantly increased in SNP-2 rat when compared to the aCSF-2 or SNP-2 groups. Our findings demonstrate that NO signaling, and the correlative activation of groups of cNTS neurons, plays key roles in the hyperglycemic reflex initiated by carotid chemoreceptor stimulation.Nitric Oxide 12/2013; · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that the carotid body glomus cells can function as glucose sensors. The activation of these chemoreceptors, and of its afferent nucleus in the brainstem (solitary tract nucleus - STn), induces rapid changes in blood glucose levels and brain glucose retention. Nitric oxide (NO) in STn has been suggested to play a key role in the processing of baroreceptor signaling initiated in the carotid sinus. However, the relationship between changes in NO in STn and carotid body induced glycemic changes has not been studied. Here we investigated in anesthetized rats how changes in brain glucose retention, induced by the local stimulation of carotid body chemoreceptors with sodium cyanide (NaCN), were affected by modulation of NO levels in STn. We found that NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) micro-injected into STn completely blocked the brain glucose retention reflex induced by NaCN chemoreceptor stimulation. In contrast, NOS inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) increased brain glucose retention reflex compared to controls or to SNP rats. Interestingly, carotid body stimulation doubled the expression of nNOS in STn, but had no effect in iNOS. NO in STn could function to terminate brain glucose retention induced by carotid body stimulation. The work indicates that NO and STn play key roles in the regulation of brain glucose retention.Nitric Oxide 11/2011; 25(4):387-95. · 3.27 Impact Factor