Functional anatomy of tendons and ligaments in the distal limbs (manus and pes).
ABSTRACT Tendons and ligaments of the equine distal limbs have a prominent anatomic, functional, and clinical importance. This article reviews the descriptive and topographic anatomy of these structures in details. Special information is given about the mechanical properties and functional anatomy of the flexor tendons, accessory ligaments, and third interosseous muscle, as well as about their roles during the standing position and gaits.
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ABSTRACT: Although beach training is commonly used in horses, limb loading on beach sand has never been investigated. A dynamometric horseshoe (DHS) is well adapted for this purpose. To compare ground reaction force (GRF) and fetlock kinematics measured in harness trotters on 2 tracks of beach sand with different water content. Two linear sand tracks were compared: firm wet sand (FWS, 19% moisture) vs. deep wet sand (DWS, 13.5% moisture). Four French trotters (550 ± 22 kg) were used. Their right forelimb was equipped with a DHS and skin markers. Each track was tested 3 times at 7 m/s. Each trial was filmed by a high-speed camera (600 Hz); DHS and speed data acquisition was performed at 10 kHz on 10 consecutive strides. All recordings were synchronised. The components Fx (parallel to the hoof solar surface) and Fz (perpendicular) of the GRF were considered. For 3 horses the fetlock angle and forelimb axis-track angle at landing were measured. Statistical differences were tested using the GLM procedure (SAS; P < 0.05). Stance duration was increased on DWS compared to FWS. Fzmax and Fxmax (oriented, respectively, downwards and forwards relatively to the solar surface) and the corresponding loading rates, were decreased on DWS and these force peaks occurred later. Fxmin (backwards) was not significantly different between both surfaces; the propulsive phase (Fx negative) was longer and the corresponding impulse higher, on DWS compared to FWS. The forelimb was more oblique to the track at landing and maximal fetlock extension was less and delayed on DWS. This study confirms that trotting on deep sand overall reduces maximal GRF and induces a more progressive limb loading. However, it increases the propulsive effort and likely superficial digital flexor tendon tension at the end of stance, which should be taken into account in beach training.Equine Veterinary Journal 11/2010; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The third interosseous muscle (suspensory ligament, TIOM) is composed of connective tissue (CT) with a variable proportion of muscle (MT) and adipose tissue (AT). The aim of our study is to quantify the CT, MT and AT within the body and the branches of right thoracic and pelvic limbs TIOM in sound horses to determine whether there are differences in CT, MT and AT between age, sex, limbs and levels. Right limbs from 11 sound horses were collected. Samples from 6 levels of the TIOM were embedded in paraffin or in Tissue-Tek® . Most of the paraffin sections were shredded. Using the cryosection, some artefacts appeared. Cryoprotection was carried out, which produced the best results. Hematoxylin-phloxine-saffron and Hematoxylin-eosin gave a good contrast of colours between the tissues observed allowing the use of an image analysis programme to calculate percentage of each tissue within the TIOM. The percentage of MT and AT decreased significantly (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of CT increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with age and when descending from the proximal to the distal level of the TIOM. The percentage of MT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in females than males, while the percentage of CT was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in males than females. The percentage of AT was significantly higher (P = 0.0278) in pelvic limbs than in thoracic limbs. These results confirm the variation in tissue composition within the TIOM of sound horses.Anantomia Histologia Embryologia 03/2013; · 0.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has generated substantial interest for tendon and ligament regeneration because of the high concentrations of growth factors in platelet alpha-granules. This study compared the temporal release of growth factors from bone marrow aspirate (BMA), PRP, and lyophilized platelet product (PP), and measured their effects on tendon and ligament gene expression. Blood and BMA were collected and processed to yield PRP and plasma. Flexor digitorum superficialis tendon (FDS) and suspensory ligament (SL) explants were cultured in 10% plasma in DMEM (control), BMA, PRP, or PP. TGF-beta1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were determined at 0, 24, and 96 h of culture using ELISA. Quantitative RT-PCR for collagen types I and III (COL1A1, COL3A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), decorin, and matrix metalloproteinases-3 and 13 (MMP-3, MMP-13) was performed. TGF-beta1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were highest in PRP and PP. Growth factor quantity was unchanged in BMA, increased in PRP, and decreased in PP over 4 days. TGF-beta1 and platelet concentrations were positively correlated. Lyophilized PP and PRP resulted in increased COL1A1:COL3A1 ratio, increased COMP, and decreased MMP-13 expression. BMA resulted in decreased COMP and increased MMP-3 and MMP-13 gene expression. Platelet concentration was positively correlated with COL1A1, ratio of COL1A1:COL3A1, and COMP, and negatively correlated with COL3A1, MMP-13, and MMP-3. White blood cell concentration was positively correlated with COL3A1, MMP3, and MMP13, and negatively correlated with a ratio of COL1A1:COL3A1, COMP, and decorin. These findings support further in vivo investigation of PRP and PP for treatment of tendonitis and desmitis.Journal of Orthopaedic Research 02/2009; 27(8):1033-42. · 2.88 Impact Factor