Functional anatomy of tendons and ligaments in the distal limbs (manus and pes).
ABSTRACT Tendons and ligaments of the equine distal limbs have a prominent anatomic, functional, and clinical importance. This article reviews the descriptive and topographic anatomy of these structures in details. Special information is given about the mechanical properties and functional anatomy of the flexor tendons, accessory ligaments, and third interosseous muscle, as well as about their roles during the standing position and gaits.
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ABSTRACT: Plasma, Trehalose u .J Bor Marrow As : and Their Effect on FDA CLEARED INDICATIONS FOR USE The Double Syringe (ACP) System is used to facilitate the safe and rapid preparation of autologous platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) from a small sample of blood at the patients point of care. The PRP can be mixed with autograft and allograft bone prior to application to an orthopedic surgical site as deemed necessary by the clinical use requirements. ABSTRACT: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has generated substantial interest for tendon and ligament regeneration because of the high concentrations of growth factors in platelet a-granules. This study compared the temporal release of growth factors from bone marrow aspirate (BMA), PRP, and lyophilized platelet product (PP), and measured their effects on tendon and ligament gene expression. Blood and BMA were collected and processed to yield PRP and plasma. Flexor digitorum superficialis tendon (FDS) and suspensory ligament (SL) explants were cultured in 10% plasma in DMEM (control), BMA, PRP, or PP. TGF-(31 and PDGF-BB concentrations were determined at 0, 24, and 96 h of culture using ELISA. Quantitative RT-PCR for collagen types I and III (COLIAl, COL3A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), decorin, and matrix metalloproteinases-3 and 13 (MMP-3, MMP-13) was performed. TGF-(3l and PDGF-BB concentrations were highest in PRP and PP. Growth factor quantity was unchanged in BMA, increased in PRP, and decreased in PP over 4 days. TGF-01 and platelet concentrations were positively correlated. Lyophilized PP and PRP resulted in increased COL1Al:COL3A1 ratio, increased COMP, and decreased MMP-13 expression. BMA resulted in decreased COMP and increased MMP-3 and MMP-13 gene expression. Platelet concentration was positively correlated with COL1A1, ratio of COLIAI:COL3A1, and COMP, and negatively correlated with COMM, MMP-13, and MMP-3. White blood cell concentration was positively correlated with COL3A1, MMP3, and MMP 13, and negatively correlated with a ratio of COL1Al:COL3A1, COMP, and decorin. These findings support further in vivo investigation of PRP and PP for treatment of tendonitis and desmitis.
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasonography is the technique of choice to identify and document tendon and ligament injuries and its interest in the diagnosis of pastern injuries has been largely demonstrated. Ultrasound examination is therefore part of routine examination in diagnostic work‐up of lameness originating from the foot or pastern area. This paper describes the ultrasonographic technique and presents normal and abnormal ultrasound images of the palmar pastern. A comprehensive description of normal transverse and longitudinal ultrasound scans is made at 4 anatomical levels. Main ultrasonographic findings indicative of digital flexor tendon lesions are presented as well as digital sheath injuries.Equine Veterinary Education 04/2013; 25(4). · 0.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The suspensory apparatus is composed of the third interosseous muscle (TIOM) or suspensory ligament, the proximal sesamoid bones, palmar ligament and distal sesamoidean ligaments (DSL). Of these structures, the suspensory ligament is the most frequently implicated in conditions seen in race and sport horses; nevertheless, DSL lesions are not rare and often associated with other injuries that can modify patient prognosis and management. Ultrasonography has been shown to be valuable in the assessment of DSL desmitis. In contrast to the metacarpal area, the pastern region has been considered technically more difficult to scan because of the small and irregular contact surface and frequent artefacts. Advances in imaging techniques with adapted ultrasound probes and the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for equine lameness evaluation have revealed that distal sesamoidean ligament injuries are more frequently implicated in lameness than previously suspected.Equine Veterinary Education 05/2013; 25(5). · 0.77 Impact Factor