Outcome and prognostic determinants in the hemolytic uremic syndrome of children.
ABSTRACT The late outcome in 89 children with the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) observed from 1971 to 1988 was analyzed up to 17 years after onset in relationship to various clinical and pathologic features at the onset of the disease. In the first 3 months after onset (acute phase) 69% of all children needed dialysis therapy. Fifteen children died, 9 during the acute phase and 6 subsequently. All surviving patients except 7 were reexamined and divided into five prognostic categories: recovery, residual renal symptoms with normal kidney function, moderate renal insufficiency, preterminal chronic renal failure (CRF) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The rate of recovery calculated by the life table method increased from 35% after 10 years in 1971-1979 to 68% in 1980-1988 (p < 0.001); it was lower in infants than in older children (44 vs. 63%; nonsignificant). Children with atypical HUS experienced more often preterminal CRF, ESRD or death than those with a typical (postenteropathic) form (33 vs. 17%; p < 0.05). If oliguria lasted < 7 days, 74% of patients recovered after 10 years versus 13% in the case of oliguria > 14 days or anuria > 7 days (p < 0.0005). The rate of recovery was also significantly smaller with the duration of dialysis treatment > 7 days, central nervous system involvement and requirement for antihypertensive therapy. In the entire series 7 patients developed preterminal CRF and 5 ESRD. Of 27 cases serially followed for 5-10 years after onset, a stable course was noted in 16, a subsequent improvement in 8 and deterioration in 3 leading to ESRD in 2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: The management of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections is reviewed. Certain management practices optimize the likelihood of good outcomes, such as avoidance of antibiotics during the pre-hemolytic uremic syndrome phase, admission to hospital, and vigorous intravenous volume expansion using isotonic fluids. The successful management of STEC infections is based on recognition that a patient might have an STEC infection, and appropriate use of the microbiology laboratory. The timeliness of STEC identification cannot be overemphasized, because it avoids therapies prompted by inappropriate additional testing and directs the clinician to focus on effective management strategies. The opportunities during STEC infections to avert the worst outcomes are brief, and this article emphasizes practical matters relevant to making a diagnosis, anticipating the trajectory of illness, and optimizing care.Infectious disease clinics of North America 09/2013; 27(3):577-97. · 2.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The outcomes of STEC HUS have improved, and the acute mortality rate in children is 1-4 %. About 70 % of patients recover completely from the acute episode and the remainder have varying degrees of sequelae. Only a few retrospective studies have reviewed these patients over long periods. Methodological flaws include a lack of strict definitions, changing modes of treatment, ascertainment bias and loss of subjects to follow-up. The kidneys bear the brunt of the long-term damage: proteinuria (15-30 % of cases); hypertension (5-15 %); chronic kidney disease (CKD; 9-18 %); and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD; 3 %). A smaller number have extra-renal sequelae: colonic strictures, cholelithiasis, diabetes mellitus or brain injury. Most renal sequelae are minor abnormalities, such as treatable hypertension and/or variable proteinuria. Most of the patients who progress to ESKD do not recover normal renal function after the acute episode. Length of anuria (more than 10 days) and prolonged dialysis are the most important risk factors for a poor acute and long-term renal outcome. After the acute episode all patients must be followed for at least 5 years, and severely affected patients should be followed indefinitely if there is proteinuria, hypertension or a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR).Pediatric Nephrology 01/2013; · 2.94 Impact Factor
- Medicina 04/2013; 73(2):127-135. · 0.42 Impact Factor