Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis. A 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. MIRA Trial Group.
ABSTRACT To assess the safety and efficacy of minocycline in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, 48-week trial of oral minocycline (200 mg/d) or placebo.
6 clinical centers in the United States.
219 adults with active rheumatoid arthritis who had previous limited treatment with disease-modifying drugs.
As the primary outcomes, 60 diarthrodial joints were examined for tenderness, and 58 joints were examined for swelling (hips excluded). Grip strength, evaluator's global assessment, morning stiffness, Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire, patient's global assessment, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, and IgM rheumatoid factor levels were also assessed; radiographs of both hands and wrists were taken.
109 and 110 patients were randomly assigned to receive minocycline and placebo, respectively. At entry, demographic, clinical, and laboratory measurements were similar in both groups. Most patients had mild to moderate disease activity and some evidence of destructive disease. At the week 48 visit, 79% of the minocycline group and 78% of the placebo group continued to receive the study medication. At 48 weeks, more patients in the minocycline group than in the placebo group showed improvement in joint swelling (54% and 39%) and joint tenderness (56% and 41%) (P < 0.023 for both comparisons). The minocycline group also showed greater improvement in hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, platelet count, and IgM rheumatoid factor levels (all P values < 0.001), and more patients receiving minocycline had laboratory values within normal ranges at 48 weeks. For the remaining outcomes, P values ranged from 0.04 to 0.76, all greater than the critical value of 0.005 (Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). The frequency of reported side effects was similar in both groups, and no serious toxicity occurred.
Minocycline was safe and effective for patients with mild to moderate rheumatoid arthritis. Its mechanisms of action remain to be determined.
Article: Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritisArthritis & Rheumatology 05/1997; 40(5). DOI:10.1002/art.1780400503 · 7.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV immune pathogenesis is postulated to involve two major mechanisms: 1) chronic innate immune responses that drive T cell activation and apoptosis and 2) induction of immune regulators that suppress T cell function and proliferation. Both arms are elevated chronically in lymphoid tissues of non-natural hosts, which ultimately develop AIDS. However, these mechanisms are not elevated chronically in natural hosts of SIV infection that avert immune pathogenesis despite similarly high viral loads. In this study we investigated whether minocycline could modulate these pathogenic antiviral responses in non-natural hosts of HIV and SIV. We found that minocycline attenuated in vitro induction of type I interferon (IFN) and the IFN-stimulated genes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs exposed to aldrithiol-2 inactivated HIV or infectious influenza virus. Activation-induced TRAIL and expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) in isolated CD4+ T cells were also reduced by minocycline. Translation of these in vitro findings to in vivo effects, however, were mixed as minocycline significantly reduced markers of activation and activation-induced cell death (CD25, Fas, caspase-3) but did not affect expression of IFNβ or the IFN-stimulated genes IDO1, FasL, or Mx in the spleens of chronically SIV-infected pigtailed macaques. TRAIL expression, reflecting the mixed effects of minocycline on activation and type I IFN stimuli, was reduced by half, but this change was not significant. These results show that minocycline administered after infection may protect against aspects of activation-induced cell death during HIV/SIV immune disease, but that in vitro effects of minocycline on type I IFN responses are not recapitulated in a rapid progressor model in vivo.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94375. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094375 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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