A laboratory study was conducted to determine the shear bond strength to enamel and dentin using the Scotchbond Multi-Purpose dental adhesive system. High shear bond strengths of P50 composite to both human enamel (26.8 +/- 5.2 MPa) and bovine enamel (24.8 +/- 4.1 MPa) were found when the system was used according to manufacturer's directions. The mean bond strength for human dentin (25.5 +/- 7.5 MPa) was also similar to that found for bovine dentin (23.4 +/- 4.9 MPa). Variations in the recommended application technique were examined on bovine dentin. Extreme air drying of the primer slightly reduced the mean shear bond strength (19.7 +/- 6.4 MPa), while a significant reduction was observed when the adhesive resin was aggressively air-thinned (10.1 +/- 6.6 Mpa).
"It is possible that the depth of the etched enamel surface created by phosphoric acid may be a contributing factor to the incidence of enamel fracture . Therefore, to minimize the extent of enamel surface damage, alternative conditioners, such as maleic acid [30, 31], nitric acid , polyacrylic acid , and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid , have been used to obtain clinically useful bond strengths by decreasing the depth of enamel dissolution. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To determine the effect of lactic acid at various concentrations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with the resin adhesive system before and after water storage. Materials and Methods. Hundred extracted human premolars were divided into 5 treatment groups and etched for 30 seconds with one of the following agents: lactic acid solution with (A) 10%, (B) 20%, (C) 30%, and (D) 50%; group E, 37% phosphoric acid (control). Metal brackets were bonded using a Transbond XT. Bonding effectiveness was assessed by shear bond strength after 24 hours and 6 months of water storage at 37°C. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test (α = .001). Results. Lactic acid concentration and water storage resulted in significant differences for brackets bond strength (P < .001). 20% lactic acid had significantly higher mean bond strength values (SD) for all conditions: 24 hours [12.2 (.7) MPa] and 6 months [10.1 (.6) MPa] of water storage. 37% phosphoric acid had intermediate bond strength values for all conditions: 24 hours [8.2 (.6) MPa] and 6 months [6.2 (.6) MPa] of water storage. Also, there were differences in bond strength between storage time, with a reduction in values from 24 hours and 6 months for all experimental groups (P < .001). Conclusion. Lactic acid could be used in place of phosphoric acid as an enamel etchant for bonding of orthodontic brackets.
"In the present investigation permanent bovine lower incisors were used. Bovine deciduous and permanent enamel has been reported to be a reliable substitute for human enamel [26, 27] in bonding studies although slightly lower  or significantly lower [26, 29] bonding values can be anticipated. Moreover bovine and human enamels are similar in their physical properties, composition, and bond strengths [26, 28]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of water and saliva contamination on the shear bond strength and failure site of orthodontic brackets and lingual buttons.
Materials and methods:
120 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 groups of 20 specimens each. Both orthodontic brackets and disinclusion buttons were tested under three different enamel surface conditions: (a) dry, (b) water contamination, and (c) saliva contamination. Brackets and buttons were bonded to the teeth and subsequently tested using a Instron universal testing machine. Shear bond strength values and adhesive failure rate were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey tests (strength values) and Chi squared test (ARI Scores).
Noncontaminated enamel surfaces showed the highest bond strengths for both brackets and buttons. Under water and saliva contamination orthodontic brackets groups showed significantly lower shear strengths than disinclusion buttons groups. Significant differences in debond locations were found among the groups under the various enamel surface conditions.
Water and saliva contamination of enamel during the bonding procedure lowers bond strength values, more with orthodontic brackets than with disinclusion buttons.
"There are numerous publications reporting bovine teeth being used to evaluate dentin bond strength of adhesive resins. But there are only few which directly compare the results obtained from bovine enamel or dentin with the respective human hard tooth tissues , , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate if bovine enamel and dentin are appropriate substitutes for the respective human hard tooth tissues to test shear bond strength (SBS) and fracture analysis.
80 sound and caries-free human erupted third molars and 80 freshly extracted bovine permanent central incisors (10 specimens for each group) were used to investigate enamel and dentine adhesion of one 2-step self-etch (SE) and one 3-step etch and rinse (E&R) product. To test SBS the buccal or labial areas were ground plane to obtain appropriate enamel or dentine areas. SE and E&R were applied and SBS was measured prior to and after 500 thermocycles between +5 and +55°C. Fracture analysis was performed for all debonded areas.
ANOVA revealed significant differences of enamel and dentin SBS prior to and after thermocycling for both of the adhesives. SBS- of E&R-bonded human enamel increased after thermocycling but SE-bonded did not. Bovine enamel SE-bonded showed higher SBS after TC but E&R-bonded had lower SBS. No differences were found for human dentin SE- or E&R-bonded prior to or after thermocycling but bovine dentin SE-bonded increased whereas bovine dentine E&R-bonded decreased. Considering the totalized and adhesive failures, fracture analysis did not show significances between the adhesives or the respective tooth tissues prior to or after thermocycling.
Although SBS was different on human and bovine teeth, no differences were found for fracture analysis. This indicates that solely conducted SBS on bovine substrate are not sufficient to judge the perfomance of adhesives, thus bovine teeth are questionnable as a substrate for shear bond testing.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e59181. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0059181 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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