Initial prognostic factors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage
Département d'Anesthésie Réanimation, Hôpital Maison Blanche, CHU Reims.Neurochirurgie (Impact Factor: 0.41). 02/1994; 40(1):18-30.
The purpose of this retrospective study is to explain, using a total of 210 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the survival by several prognostic factors measured at the admission time. A multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model allowed one to recognize five prognostic factors: secondary arterial hypertension (risk ratio (RR) = 1.8; p = 0.03), the Hunt and Hess grade-3 (RR = 3.3; p = 0.002), the Hunt and Hess grade-4 (RR = 7.3; p = 0.007), and the hunt and Hess grade-5 (RR = 5.8; p = 0.03), the Fisher grade-3 (RR = 2; p = 0.01), and the Fisher grade-4 (RR = 2; p = 0.001). The determination of a prognostic score for each patient (using the coefficients of selected prognostic factors) allowed one to establish 3 prognostic stages with survival probabilities significantly different (p = 0.00005); stage-1; survival rate after 150 days (SR) = 97 %, confidence interval of 95 % (CI) = [0.90; 0.99], stage-2: SR = 66 %, CI = [0.56; 0.74], stage-3; SR = 34 %, CI = [0.17; 0.54]. The relative death risk for the stage-2 was 14 times higher than that for stage-1 (p = 0.00005), and the relative death risk for the stage-3 was 36 times higher than that for stage-1 (p = 0.00005). The age, the essential arterial hypertension, the sex and the angiographic classification of George have no prognostic value. The rebleeding incidence was correlated with prognostic stages (respectively from stage-1 to the stage-3: 8 %, 14 %, 34 %).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: Although the Hunt and Hess Scale (HHS) and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale (WFNSS) are the most widely used subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) grading systems, neither system has achieved universal acceptance. We propose a simplified grading system based entirely on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which compresses the 15-point GCS into five grades that are comparable with those of the HHS and WFNSS. We refer to this system as the GCS grading system and present a direct comparison with the HHS and WFNSS for predictive value regarding patient outcome and interrater reliability. We reviewed 291 consecutive patients with aneurysms treated at our institution between January 1992 and January 1996 and compared the admission grades from the GCS, WFNSS, and HHS with outcome measures at discharge from hospitalization. The Glasgow Outcome score was used as the major outcome measure to evaluate the predictive value of the three scales. Mortality and length of stay (LOS) were also evaluated as outcome measures. The predictive value of each scale was tested with an ordinal logistic regression model for Glasgow Outcome score, a logistic regression model for mortality data, and a linear regression model for LOS. Using the logistic regression model, the GCS was the best predictor of discharge Glasgow Outcome score, with an odds ratio of 2.585 (P = 0.0001), compared with 2.311 (P = 0.0001) for the WFNSS and 2.262 (P = 0.0001) for the HHS. Using mortality data in the logistic model, the HHS was the best predictor, with an odds ratio of 3.391 (P = 0.0001), compared with 2.859 (P = 0.0001) for the GCS and 2.560 (P = 0.0001) for the WFNSS. Each of the three scales had a high predictive value for LOS, using a linear model. We discuss, however, the problematic nature of LOS as an outcome measure for SAH. Interrater reliability for each scale was evaluated using kappa statistics, based on 15 additional patients evaluated prospectively, and showed that the GCS grade also had the greatest interrater reliability, with a kappa of 0.46 (P = 0.0002), compared with 0.41 (P = 0.0005) for the HHS and 0.27 (P = 0.027) for the WFNSS. We conclude that the GCS grade has equal or greater predictive value regarding outcome after SAH than do the currently used grading systems and that it has greater reproducibility across observers. Broader familiarity with the GCS among medical and paramedical personnel may further enhance the usefulness of the GCS grade over the HHS and WFNSS in providing a standardized, universally accepted grading system for SAH.Neurosurgery 08/1997; 41(1):140-7; discussion 147-8. DOI:10.1097/00006123-199707000-00029 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our objective was to examine the impact of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) vasospasm monitoring on clinical decision-making following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The records of 50 randomly selected patients undergoing serial TCD monitoring following SAH were reviewed. Dates and results of TCDs and cerebral angiograms, the use of hypertensive hemodilution (HH) therapy, and the development of new neurological deficits were recorded. The independent effects of TCD-defined vasospasm and new neurological deficits on patient management were determined with multiple logistical regression. Results were validated in a second randomly selected, 50 patient cohort. Mild or moderate TCD-defined vasospasm developed in 76% of patients 5.8 +/- 0.5 days after SAH; 38% developed severe TCD-defined vasospasm after 7.9 +/- 0.7 days. Focal neurological deficits occurred in 50% after 5.7 +/- 0.6 days with TCD abnormalities preceding the deficit by 2.5 +/- 0.7 days in 64%. TCD-defined vasospasm or a new neurological deficit explained 60% of the variance in the use of HH therapy (P = .005). New neurological deficits increased the odds of HH therapy 33-fold (P = .004) whereas there was no independent effect of TCD-defined vasospasm. These variables explained 64% of the variance in the performance of angiography (P = .0002). An abnormal TCD did not increase the odds of angiography whereas its use increased 28-fold (P = .01) after a neurological deficit developed. These results were confirmed in an independent cohort. We concluded that TCD-defined vasospasm did not independently influence the use of HH therapy or angiography with both decisions associated with the development of new neurological deficits. As TCD-defined vasospasm preceded the neurological deficit in 64%, earlier intervention might reduce the incidence of vasospasm-related stroke in institutions with similar practice patterns.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 03/2003; 12(2):88-92. DOI:10.1053/jscd.2003.10 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The two most commonly used aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scales are the Hunt and Hess and World Federation of Neurological Societies scales. Neither has achieved universal acceptance, however, owing to concerns regarding either subjectivity or lack of correlation with outcomes, respectively. A grading scale based entirely on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was recently proposed. We have prospectively evaluated the GCS grading system and compared it with the Hunt and Hess and World Federation of Neurological Societies scales for predictive accuracy. Data from 1532 consecutive patients with intracranial aneurysms admitted to our institution between January 1991 and June 2005 were analyzed. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was the primary outcome measure. Mortality and length of stay were secondary measures. The scales were evaluated using simple and multivariable logistic and linear regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to assess predictive accuracy for the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Prognostic factors were assessed with ordinal multivariable logistic regression. The GCS grading system was most strongly associated with all outcome measures and was the strongest predictor of mortality and persistent vegetative state. Age, vasospasm, hydrocephalus, and intracranial hematoma were found to be significant prognostic elements. The GCS grading system is more strongly associated with outcomes than either the Hunt and Hess or World Federation of Neurological Societies scales, and it is an equivalent to a slightly better predictor of Glasgow Outcome Scale outcomes. Its simplicity, proven inter-rater reliability, and wide level of familiarity among health care personnel render the GCS grading system a superior grading scale for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage severity, warranting its consideration for universal use.Neurosurgery 09/2008; 63(2):204-10; discussion 210-1. DOI:10.1227/01.NEU.0000316857.80632.9A · 3.62 Impact Factor
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