A controlled trial of mitoxantrone in multiple sclerosis: serial MRI evaluation at one year.
ABSTRACT We present the results of a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled, multicenter trial, of low-dose mitoxantrone (MX), after one year, in 25 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, who had serial enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment groups were balanced for age, gender, duration of illness and neurological disability. Five of the 13 MX patients and 10 of the 12 placebo patients had exacerbations during treatment (p < 0.02). The mean change in the extended disability status scale was not significantly different between the MX and placebo treatment groups. Serial Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI detected no significant difference between the MX treated and placebo groups in the mean total number of new, enlarging, or Gadolinium-DTPA enhancing lesions; there was a trend toward a reduction of new, enlarging and Gadolinium-DTPA enhancing lesions in MX patients. Despite this ameliorating effect, the results indicate that serial Gadolinium-DTPA enhanced MRI, performed over one year in a limited number of patients, could not provide conclusive evidence for a role of MX therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.
Article: Mitoxantrone for multiple sclerosis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This is an updated Cochrane review of the previous published version.Mitoxantrone (MX) has been shown to be moderately effective in reducing the clinical outcome measures of disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of MX compared to a control group in relapsing-remitting (RRMS), progressive relapsing (PRMS) and secondary progressive (SPMS) MS participants. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the Central Nervous System Group Specialised Register (June 2012) and reference lists of articles. We also undertook handsearching and contacted trialists and pharmaceutical companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blinded, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the administration of MX versus placebo or MX plus steroids treatment versus placebo plus steroids treatment were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors independently selected articles for inclusion. They independently extracted clinical, safety and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, resolving disagreements by discussion. Risk of bias was evaluated to assess the quality of the studies. Treatment effect was measured using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the binary outcomes and mean differences (MD) with 95% CI for the continuous outcomes. If heterogeneity was absent, a fixed-effect model was used. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were selected and 221 participants were included in the analyses. MX reduced the progression of disability at two years follow-up (proportion of participants with six months confirmed progression of disability (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.99 and MD -0.36, 95% CI- 0.70 to -0.02; P = 0.04)). Significant results were found regarding the reduction in annualised relapse rate (MD -0.85, 95% CI -1.47 to -0.23; P = 0.007), the proportion of patients free from relapses at one year (OR 7.13, 95% CI 2.06 to 24.61; P = 0.002) and two years (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.19; P = 0.0008), and the number of patients with active MRI lesions at six months or one year only (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.57; P = 0.001). Side effects reported in the trials (amenorrhoea, nausea and vomiting, alopecia and urinary tract infections) were more frequent in treated patients than in controls, while no major adverse events have been reported. These results should be considered with caution because of the heterogeneous characteristics of included trials in term of drug dosage, inclusion criteria and quality of included trials. Moreover, it was not possible to estimate the long-term efficacy and safety of MX. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: MX shows a significant but partial efficacy in reducing the risk of MS progression and the frequency of relapses in patients affected by worsening RRMS, PRMS and SPMS in the short-term follow-up (two years). No major neoplastic events or symptomatic cardiotoxicity related to MX have been reported; however studies with longer follow-up (not included in this review) have raised concerns about the risk of systolic disfunction (˜12%) and therapy-related acute leukaemias (0.8%), which are increasingly reported in the literature.MX should be limited to treating patients with worsening RRMS and SPMS and with evidence of persistent inflammatory activity after a careful assessment of the individual patients' risk and benefit profiles. Assessment should also consider the present availability of alternative therapies with less severe adverse events.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2013; 5(4):CD002127. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD002127.pub3 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitoxantrone is an immunosuppressive drug approved for aggressive relapsing and progressive multiple sclerosis. In recent years, its use has decreased due to the risk of severe adverse events and the introduction of novel therapies, such as natalizumab or fingolimod. Mitoxantrone is effective in reducing inflammatory activity by decreasing the number of relapses and MRI lesions and simultaneously decreasing the worsening of disability. Apart from its role as a second/third-line therapy, some studies suggest its use as an induction therapy. However, mitoxantrone use is limited because of its potential risk of severe adverse events, such as cardiotoxicity and the induction of therapy-related acute leukemia. Genetic markers are on evaluation to predict side effects and therapeutic efficacy, which is consistent with the direction of personalized treatment. Considering its efficacy and the potential risks, mitoxantrone use is limited to active patients after a careful, individualized evaluation of the risk/benefit balance.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 05/2014; DOI:10.1586/14737175.2014.915742 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease for which several immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive strategies have been shown to reduce evidence of disease activity and preserve neurological function. High-dose parenteral corticosteroid therapy speeds recovery from acute attacks of MS, including optic neuritis. Severe, corticosteroid-refractory attacks may respond to plasma exchange. Following a first-ever demyelinating event (clinically isolated syndrome), treatment with glatiramer acetate, intramuscular interferon β-1a, or subcutaneous interferon β-1b reduces the risk of the development of clinically definite MS over the subsequent 2–3 years. KeywordsMultiple sclerosis-Optic neuritis-Disease modifying therapy-Clinically isolated syndrome-Epidemiology-Diagnosis-Treatment-Prognosis-Evidence-based medicine12/2011: pages 273-291;