Food allergy in infants and children: clinical evaluation and management.
ABSTRACT A total of 122 infants and children up to age 17 (69 males and 53 females) who were referred for food allergy to the Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit were evaluated by complete history, emphasizing the implicated foods, clinical presentation and involvement of various organ systems, physical examination, and prick skin tests to food allergens. Fourteen infants with a history of egg white allergy and positive skin tests to egg white also underwent skin tests (prick and intradermal in 1:100 dilution) to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine; 35 children under 3 years old had 41 oral challenges with the suspected foods; and 9 children over 3 years old had 12 oral challenges with the suspected foods. We found that cow milk/humanized milk formula, egg white, soybean, and peanut are the main allergenic foods in the pediatric population. Thirteen children had 13 positive oral challenges: 12 to cow milk/humanized milk formula and one to egg white. Symptoms reproduced by oral challenges included urticarial and erythematous rash, conjunctival itching, angioedema, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and rhinorrhea. No anaphylactic shock was reported. Negative skin test has an excellent predictive accuracy for negative oral challenge with the suspected food in children > 3 years old. The negative predictive accuracy of cow milk skin test in children < 3 years was 73%. Positive skin test is not a good predictor of a clinical reaction to food. Oral food challenge performed cautiously in a medical setting is the "gold standard" for diagnosis. MMR vaccine can be safely administered to infants with egg white allergy after skin tests with the vaccine are performed.
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ABSTRACT: Os alérgenos do leite de vaca são os primeiros antígenos a entrar em contato com a criança. A sintomatologia, em geral multissistêmica, pode estar relacionada ao trato gastrointestinal, à pele e, raramente, ao aparelho respiratório. Objetivo: Descrever algumas características clínicas e epidemiológicas de crianças com alergia ao leite de vaca com sintomas respiratórios. Casuística e método: Foram avaliadas retrospectivamente 17 crianças com acometimento do trato respiratório imediato à ingestão de leite de vaca que, com a exclusão deste tipo de alimento por quatro a seis semanas, se tornaram assintomáticas e, posteriormente, voltaram a apresentar sintomas respiratórios com a reintrodução, em ambiente hospitalar, do leite de vaca. Resultados: Não houve diferença quanto ao sexo e 14 das 17 crianças tinham antecedentes atópicos familiares. O tempo médio do aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 2,9 meses e o do início dos sintomas, de 3,6 meses. Oito dos dez testes de hipersensibilidade cutânea imediata ao leite de vaca foram positivos. As manifestações clínicas foram: lactente chiador (nove), asma (cinco), otite de repetição (duas), deficiência seletiva de IgA associada com broncoespasmo (duas), rinoconjuntivite alérgica (uma). Conclusão: Em lactentes chiadores a alergia ao leite de vaca deve ser incluída no diagnóstico diferencial e em pacientes com antecedentes familiares atópicos deve ser estimulado o aleitamento materno exclusivo. Entretanto, o diagnóstico preciso é importante para evitar privações alimentares desnecessárias.Jornal de Pneumologia. 01/2001;
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ABSTRACT: Food allergy is common in children, occurring in 5-7.5%. The diagnosis may, however, be difficult. Elevated IgE or positive skin prick test to a food allergen is often considered proof of allergy, but may represent sensitisation without clinical manifestations. For a precise diagnosis oral challenge is necessary, but this is often not performed because of risk of serious allergic reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether conjunctival provocation test would facilitate the diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy. One hundred and forty-nine children with 174 possible diagnoses of food allergy were included. General examination, skin prick test and specific IgE were performed, as well as conjunctival provocation test of the suspected food allergen. Open food challenges and double-blind placebo controlled tests were performed in order to diagnose possible food allergy. Forty-six children with strongly positive conjunctival reactions (rubor, itching, oedema) to fifty food allergens were all proven to have allergy to the food in question. The children with negative conjunctival provocation tests showed no allergic reactions when challenged. We find that a strongly positive conjunctival reaction to a food allergen correlates well with true allergy. An oral challenge should be carefully performed. With a negative conjunctival test an oral challenge may safely be performed.Allergologia et Immunopathologia 38(6):321-6. · 1.04 Impact Factor