Localization of the human cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DNECL) to 14qter by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
ABSTRACT Dyneins are a group of microtubule-activated ATPases that serve to convert chemical energy into mechanical energy. They have been divided into two large subgroups, namely the axonemal and cytoplasmic dyneins. Cytoplasmic dynein has been implicated in a variety of other forms of intracellular motility, including retrograde axonal transport, protein sorting between apical and basolateral surfaces, and redistribution of organelles like endosomes and lysosomes. Our report is the first chromosomal localization of the human ctyoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DNECL). 7 refs., 1 fig.
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ABSTRACT: We report the molecular and genetic characterization of the cytoplasmic dynein light-chain gene, ddlc1, from Drosophila melanogaster. ddlc1 encodes the first cytoplasmic dynein light chain identified, and its genetic analysis represents the first in vivo characterization of cytoplasmic dynein function in higher eucaryotes. The ddlc1 gene maps to 4E1-2 and encodes an 89-amino-acid polypeptide with a high similarity to the axonemal 8-kDa outer-arm dynein light chain from Chlamydomonas flagella. Developmental Northern (RNA) blot analysis and ovary and embryo RNA in situ hybridizations indicate that the ddlc1 gene is expressed ubiquitously. Anti-DDLC1 antibody analyses show that the DDLC1 protein is localized in the cytoplasm. P-element-induced partial-loss-of-function mutations cause pleiotropic morphogenetic defects in bristle and wing development, as well as in oogenesis, and hence result in female sterility. The morphological abnormalities found in the ovaries are always associated with a loss of cellular shape and structure, as visualized by a disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Total-loss-of-function mutations cause lethality. A large proportion of mutant animals degenerate during embryogenesis, and the dying cells show morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, namely, cell and nuclear condensation and fragmentation, as well as DNA degradation. Cloning of the human homolog of the ddlc1 gene, hdlc1, demonstrates that the dynein light-chain 1 is highly conserved in flies and humans. Northern blot analysis and epitope tagging show that the hdlc1 gene is ubiquitously expressed and that the human dynein light chain 1 is localized in the cytoplasm. hdlc1 maps to 14q24.Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/1996; 16(5):1966-77. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The intracellular membrane-bound protein kinectin appears to be an important protein component linking subcellular cargoes to the plus-end-directed microtubule-based motor protein kinesin, and potentially also to the minus-end directed motor protein cytoplasmic dynein, for transport along the microtubular highway (Toyoshima et al., 1992; Kumar et al., 1995). Kinectin-blocking antibodies, and peptide fragments derived from the coiled-coil domain prevent kinesin and dynein binding to membranes, and inhibit the bidirectional movement of both crude membranes and phagosomes along microtubules (Kumar et al., 1995; Blocker et al., 1997).Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics - CYTOGENET CELL GENET. 01/1998; 81(1):87-88.
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ABSTRACT: Dynein heavy chains are involved in microtubule-dependent transport processes. While cytoplasmic dyneins are involved in chromosome or vesicle movement, axonemal dyneins are essential for motility of cilia and flagella. Here we report the isolation of dynein heavy chain (DHC)-like sequences in man and mouse. Using polymerase chain reaction and reverse-transcribed human and mouse testis RNA cDNA fragments encoding the conserved ATP binding region of dynein heavy chains were amplified. We identified 11 different mouse and eight human dynein-like sequences in testis which show high similarity to known dyneins of different species such as rat, sea urchin or green algae. Sequence similarities suggest that two of the mouse clones and one human clone encode putative cytoplasmic dynein heavy chains, whereas the other sequences show higher similarity to axonemal dyneins. Two of nine axonemal dynein isoforms identified in the mouse testis are more closely related to known outer arm dyneins, while seven clones seem to belong to the inner arm dynein group. Of the isolated human isoforms three clones were classified as outer arm and four clones as inner arm dynein heavy chains. Each of the DHC cDNAs corresponds to an individual gene as determined by Southern blot experiments. The alignment of the deduced protein sequences between human (HDHC) and mouse (MDHC) dynein fragments reveals higher similarity between single human and mouse sequences than between two sequences of the same species. Human and mouse cDNA fragments were used to isolate genomic clones. Two of these clones, gHDHC7 and gMDHC7, are homologous genes encoding axonemal inner arm dyneins. While the human clone is assigned to 3p21, the mouse gene maps to chromosome 14.Gene 11/1997; · 2.08 Impact Factor