Tropomodulin is a 40.6-kDa protein that binds to one end of the rod-like tropomyosin and inhibits its cooperativity and binding to actin. In myofibrils, tropomodulin has been localized at or near the free end of thin filaments. Using recombinant and chimeric molecules in a solid-phase binding assay, we demonstrate that it is the N-terminus of tropomyosin that interacts with tropomodulin. Among several tropomyosin isoforms tested, hTM5 encoded by the human gamma-tropomyosin gene has the highest affinity toward human erythrocyte tropomodulin. Tropomodulin may, therefore, regulate the length and/or organization of actin filaments by differential binding to tropomyosin isoforms. hTM5 exists in the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton. In non-muscle cells, tropomodulin may block the head-to-tail association of tropomyosins and their interaction with actin at the pointed end of actin filaments by preferentially binding to TM5 at its N-terminus.
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"The Tmods have distinct TM and actin binding domains (Babcock and Fowler, 1994; Gregorio et al., 1995) with the binding site for TM being in the N-terminal half of Tmod. Tmod binds to the N terminus of TM (Sung and Lin, 1994). Recently mutagenesis studies mapped the binding for recombinant human E-Tmod to the first heptad of the coiled-coil region (residues 6 –13) of human tropomyosin hTM5, a product of the TPM4 gene (Vera et al., 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tropomodulins (Tmods) are tropomyosin (TM) binding proteins that bind to the pointed end of actin filaments and modulate thin filament dynamics. They bind to the N termini of both "long" TMs (with the N terminus encoded by exon 1a of the alpha-TM gene) and "short" nonmuscle TMs (with the N terminus encoded by exon 1b). In this present study, circular dichroism was used to study the interaction of two designed chimeric proteins, AcTM1aZip and AcTM1bZip, containing the N terminus of a long or a short TM, respectively, with protein fragments containing residues 1 to 130 of erythrocyte or skeletal muscle Tmod. The binding of either TMZip causes similar conformational changes in both Tmod fragments promoting increases in both alpha-helix and beta-structure, although they differ in binding affinity. The circular dichroism changes in the Tmod upon binding and modeling of the Tmod sequences suggest that the interface between TM and Tmod includes a three- or four-stranded coiled coil. An intact coiled coil at the N terminus of the TMs is essential for Tmod binding, as modifications that disrupt the N-terminal helix, such as removal of the N-terminal acetyl group from AcTM1aZip or striated muscle alpha-TM, or introduction of a mutation that causes nemaline myopathy, Met-8-Arg, into AcTM1aZip destroyed Tmod binding.
"Tm 5NM isoforms may slow depolymerisation of actin filaments by stabilising the pointed end better than ␣-Tm fast and ␤-Tm isoforms. Tm 5NM isoforms, however, may use other mechanisms to prevent rapid actin depolymerisation such as specifically recruiting other Tm-binding proteins that cap actin such as tropomodulin [Sung and Lin, 1994]. Follow-up studies are required, however, to further investigate this differential sensitivity. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nonmuscle actin cytoskeleton consists of multiple networks of actin microfilaments. Many of these filament systems are bound by the actin-binding protein tropomyosin (Tm). We investigated whether Tm isoforms could be cell cycle regulated during G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle in synchronised NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Using Tm isoform-specific antibodies, we investigated protein expression levels of specific Tms in G0 and G1 phases and whether co-expressed isoforms could be sorted into different compartments. Protein levels of Tms 1, 2, 5a, 6, from the alpha Tm(fast) and beta-Tm genes increased approximately 2-fold during mid-late G1. Tm 3 levels did not change appreciably during G1 progression. In contrast, Tm 5NM gene isoform levels (Tm 5NM-1-11) increased 2-fold at 5 h into G1 and this increase was maintained for the following 3 h. However, Tm 5NM-1 and -2 levels decreased by a factor of three during this time. Comparison of the staining of the antibodies CG3 (detects all Tm 5NM gene products), WS5/9d (detects only two Tms from the Tm 5NM gene, Tm 5NM-1 and -2) and alpha(f)9d (detects specific Tms from the alpha Tm(fast) and beta-Tm genes) antibodies revealed 3 spatially distinct microfilament systems. Tm isoforms detected by alpha(f)9d were dramatically sorted from isoforms from the Tm 5NM gene detected by CG3. Tm 5NM-1 and Tm 5NM-2 were not incorporated into stress fibres, unlike other Tm 5NM isoforms, and marked a discrete, punctate, and highly polarised compartment in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. All microfilament systems, excluding that detected by the WS5/9d antibody, were observed to coalign into parallel stress fibres at 8 h into G1. However, Tms detected by the CG3 and alpha(f)9d antibodies were incorporated into filaments at different times indicating distinct temporal control mechanisms. Microfilaments in NIH 3T3 cells containing Tm 5NM isoforms were more resistant to cytochalasin D-mediated actin depolymerisation than filaments containing isoforms from the alpha Tm(fast) and beta-Tm genes. This suggests that Tm 5NM isoforms may be in different microfilaments to alpha Tm(fast) and beta-Tm isoforms even when present in the same stress fibre. Staining of primary mouse fibroblasts showed identical Tm sorting patterns to those seen in cultured NIH 3T3 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that sorting of Tms is not restricted to cultured cells and can be observed in human columnar epithelial cells in vivo. We conclude that the expression and localisation of Tm isoforms are differentially regulated in G0 and G1 phase of the cell cycle. Tms mark multiple microfilament compartments with restricted tropomyosin composition. The creation of distinct microfilament compartments by differential sorting of Tm isoforms is observable in primary fibroblasts, cultured 3T3 cells and epithelial cells in vivo.
Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 12/2000; 47(3):189-208. DOI:10.1002/1097-0169(200011)47:3<189::AID-CM3>3.0.CO;2-C · 4.19 Impact Factor