DSM-III personality disorders in the community
ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and investigate the comorbidity and potential consequences of DSM-III personality disorders in the community.
A total of 810 adults were examined in the second stage of the Eastern Baltimore Mental Health Survey in 1981, part of the National Institute of Mental Health Epidemiologic Catchment Area program. The subjects were directly examined by psychiatrists using a semi-structured method that allowed diagnosis of all DSM-III personality disorders as well as other DSM-III psychiatric disorders.
The prevalence of personality disorders in these adults was 5.9% (9.3% when provisional cases were included). Men had higher rates than women, and subjects who were separated or divorced had the highest rates. There was little comorbidity among specific personality disorders. Subjects with personality disorders were significantly more likely to have a history of sexual dysfunctions, alcohol use disorders, and drug use disorders as well as suicidal thoughts and attempts. In addition, they reported significantly more life events in the past year. Among subjects with any axis I disorder, those with personality disorders were judged by the psychiatrists to be more in need of treatment; however, only 21% were receiving treatment.
Personality disorders are relatively common in the community. They are associated with axis I disorders and life events. Only one-fifth of the individuals who qualify for diagnoses of personality disorders in the community are receiving treatment.
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- "After each interview, the psychologist formulated a final rating for each criterion based on clinical judgment of both subject and informant reports, and completed a case summary describing the personality of each subject. This assessment has been described previously (Samuels et al., 1994). "
ABSTRACT: Based on the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) follow-up survey, we examined relationships between dimensions of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) personality disorders and both subjective and objective memory functioning in a community population. Our study subjects consisted of 736 individuals from the ECA follow-up study of the original Baltimore ECA cohort, conducted between 1993 and 1996 and available for assessment in the Hopkins Epidemiology Study of Personality Disorders from 1997 to 1999. Subjects were assessed for DSM-IV personality disorders using a semi-structured instrument, the International Personality Disorder Examination, and were asked about a subjective appraisal of memory. Verbal memory function, including immediate recall, delayed recall, and recognition, were also evaluated. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine associations between personality dimensions of DSM-IV Axis II traits and subjective and objective memory functioning. Scores on schizoid and schizotypal personality dimensions were associated with subjective and objective memory dysfunction, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. Borderline, antisocial, avoidant, and dependent personality disorder scores were associated with subjective memory impairment only, both with and without adjustment for Axis I disorders. This study suggests that subjective feelings of memory impairment and/or objective memory dysfunction are associated with specific personality disorder dimensions.Psychiatry Research 02/2012; 196(1):109-14. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.08.012 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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- "The instrument included the Present State Examination (9 th edition) (Wing et al, 1997; supplemented with additional items for DSM-III diagnoses. The Personality Disorder Schedule (PDS) of the SPE was used to assess DSM-III PDs (Samuels et al, 1994). The examining psychiatrist rated abiding personality disorder characteristics on a 3-point scale ranging from 0 (absent) to 2 (trait definitely present and has caused the subject distress and/or social/occupational disruption). "
ABSTRACT: Stability of personality disorders is assumed in most nomenclatures; however, the evidence for this is limited and inconsistent. The aim of this study is to investigate the stability of DSM-III personality disorders in a community sample of eastern Baltimore residents unselected for treatment. Two hundred ninety four participants were examined on two occasions by psychiatrists using the same standardized examination twelve to eighteen years apart. All the DSM-III criteria for personality disorders were assessed. Item-response analysis was adapted into two approaches to assess the agreement between the personality measures on the two occasions. The first approach estimated stability in the underlying disorder, correcting for error in trait measurement, and the second approach estimated stability in the measured disorder, without correcting for item unreliability. Five of the ten personality disorders exhibited moderate stability in individuals: antisocial, avoidant, borderline, histrionic, and schizotypal. Associated estimated ICCs for stability of underlying disorder over time ranged between approximately 0.4 and 0.7-0.8. A sixth disorder, OCPD, exhibited appreciable stability with estimated ICC of approximately 0.2-0.3. Dependent, narcissistic, paranoid, and schizoid disorders were not demonstrably stable. The findings suggest that six of the DSM personality disorder constructs themselves are stable, but that specific traits within the DSM categories are both of lesser importance than the constructs themselves and require additional specification.Journal of Psychiatric Research 09/2009; 44(1):1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2009.06.009 · 4.09 Impact Factor
- "In the majority of the studies no control group is included, which makes it difficult to compare these findings with those for nonepileptic (normal) control subjects and control subjects with other chronic medical conditions. Nevertheless, a number of studies have estimated the prevalence of personality disorders in the community and reported prevalence rates between 5.9 and 13.4%    . Compared with these figures, the rate of prevalence of personality disorders in patients with epilepsy seems to be slightly increased. "
Article: Psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many studies on psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy have been performed using many different patient groups and diagnostic instruments. This methodological heterogeneity complicates comparison of the findings. In this article, psychiatric disorders in epilepsy are reviewed from the perspective of the DSM classification system. The empirical findings of axis I clinical disorders and axis II personality disorders are described separately. Furthermore, the existence and specificity of conditions such as interictal dysphoric disorder, interictal behavior syndrome, and psychosis of epilepsy are discussed. From the many studies that have been performed on this topic it can be learned that there is a need for well-controlled studies using representative patient groups and valid and standardized diagnostic instruments. So far, the majority of the studies have concerned axis I disorders; relatively little research has been performed on axis II personality disorders. More research on personality disorders, as well as on the relative contributions of the different (brain- and non-brain-related) factors to the relationship between epilepsy and psychiatric disorders, is recommended.Epilepsy & Behavior 09/2005; 7(1):37-50. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2005.04.012 · 2.06 Impact Factor