A report on a cerebro-vascular disease with autosomal dominant inheritance, characterised by stroke-like episodes beginning in early adulthood and progressive dementia, afflicting one family living in Sweden was presented in 1977. Another afflicted member showing gait and coordination disturbances and impaired cognitive functions is now introduced. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple brain lesions indicating ischaemic injuries. Previous autopsy studies of other cases revealed white matter atrophy, multiple infarcts and lacunes. In one patient who had died from a cerebral haemorrhage, obliteration of intracerebral arteries, occasionally with organised thrombi was present. Autopsy material has now been reinvestigated with special attention to changes of intracerebral arterioles. Cases with long duration of the disease presented pronounced fibrous thickening of the wall of numerous intracerebral arterioles, degeneration of smooth muscle cells of the media and obliteration of the lumen. Immunohistochemistry showed marked expression of fibrillary collagen types I, III and V and of the basal lamina components collagen type IV and laminin. These depositions are probably induced by some primary dysfunction of smooth muscle cells or endothelial cells. Perivascular reactive astrocytes with endothelin-1-like immunoreactivity were present in some brain regions. Endothelin-1 is the most powerful vasoconstrictor peptide known to date. Structural remodelling of intracerebral arterial vessels, actions of different vasoactive factors and rheological disturbances may all interfere with local blood flow in this disease and cause the parenchymal changes of the brain.
"It has been well accepted that a reduction in the number of small arterioles and capillaries per volume of tissue (rarefaction) plays a major role in the elevation of vascular resistance and, consequently, of blood pressure. On the other hand, impairment of cerebral perfusion resulting from rarefaction contributes to hypoperfusion of the brain, leading to neuronal dysfunction and progressive cognitive failure [6, 7]. Therefore, besides lowering of blood pressure, attenuation of rarefaction and resultant hypoperfusion in cerebral tissue is reasoned as an essential goal for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction following hypertension. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20) and Zusanli (ST36) on cerebral microvessels and neurons in CA1 region of hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 45 male Wistar rats and 45 SHR were randomly grouped, with or without electroacupuncture (EA) at DU20 and ST36, once every other day for a period of 8 weeks. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured once every 2 weeks. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the number of open microvessels in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by Laser Doppler and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nissl staining and Western blotting were performed, respectively, to determine hippocampus morphology and proteins that were implicated in the concerning signaling pathways. The results showed that the MAP in SHR increased linearly over the observation period and was significantly reduced following electroacupuncture as compared with sham control SHR rats, while no difference was observed in Wistar rats between EA and sham control. The CBF, learning and memory capacity, and capillary rarefaction of SHR were improved by EA. The upregulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), endothelin receptor (ETAR), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in SHR rats was attenuated by electroacupuncture, suggesting an implication of AT1R, ETAR, and ET-1 pathway in the effect of EA.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2013; 2013(7):482947. DOI:10.1155/2013/482947 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"One possibility is that the same aging mechanism may affect both brain and kidneys in some aged animals. For instance, overactivation of the endothelin system may damage both brain and kidneys by impairing microvascular function in these organs (Zhang et al. 1994; Kuiper et al. 2008; Seccia et al. 2008; Soleman et al. 2010). On the other hand, the impaired kidney function results in accumulation of metabolic toxic products which could impair brain function (e.g., cognition). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine changes in klotho, endothelin (ET) receptors, and superoxide production in kidneys of aged rats and whether these changes are exacerbated in aged rats with cognitive impairment. Twenty aged rats (male, 27 months) were divided into an Old Impaired group (n=9) and an Old Intact group (n=11) according to a cognitive function test. A group of 12-month-old rats (n=10) was used as a Young Intact group. Serum creatinine was increased significantly in the Old Impaired group, suggesting impaired renal function. Aged rats showed glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitialfibrosis. These pathological changes were markedly aggravated in the old cognitively impaired than in the old cognitively intact animals. Notably, aged rats demonstrated a significant decrease in klotho protein expression in renal cortex and medulla. Protein expression of IL-6, Nox2, ETa receptors and superoxide production were increased whereas mitochondrial SOD (MnSOD) and ETb receptors expression were decreased in kidneys of the aged rats. Interestingly, these changes were more pronounced in the old impaired than in the old intact rats. In conclusion, the aging-related kidney damage was exacerbated in aged rats with cognitive impairment. Klotho, ETB, and MnSOD were downregulated but ETa, IL-6, Nox2, and superoxide production were upregulated in the aging-related kidney damage. These changes were more pronounced in rats with cognitive impairment.
Age 09/2011; 33(3):261-74. DOI:10.1007/s11357-010-9176-2 · 3.45 Impact Factor
"In contrast, the endothelium of the vessels is usually spared. Sometimes, the smooth muscle cells are not detectable, and are replaced by collagen fibers.16 On electron microscopy, the smooth muscle cells appear swollen and often degenerated, some of them with multiple nuclei. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy(CADASIL) is an inherited small-artery disease of mid-adulthood caused by mutations of the NOTCH3 gene. The disease is responsible for widespread white-matter Iesions associated with lacunar infarctions in varinus subcortical areas. The disease is responsible for migraine with aura and ischemic strokes, and is associated with various degrees of cognitive impairment and with mood disturbances. CADASIL is considered as a unique model to investigate what is known as "subcortical ischemic vascular dementia. "Recent data suggest
that the number of lacunar infarctions and severity of cerebral atrophy are the main magnetic resonance imaging markers associated with cognitive and motor disabilities in this disorder. Mood disturbances are reported in 10% to 20% of patients, most often in association with cognitive alterations. Their exact origin remains unknown; the presence of ischemic lesions within the basal ganglia or the frontal white matter may promote the occurrence of these symptoms. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationships between cerebral lesions and both cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in this small-vessel disease of the brain.
Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 02/2007; 9(2):199-208.
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