Effect of suppository bases on the release properties of a potent antimicrobial agent (C31G).
ABSTRACT C31G is a specific formulation which contains equal molar concentrations of alkyl N-betaine and alkyl N,N-dimethylamine oxide. Vaginal suppositories containing 500 mg of C31G, this potent antimicrobial substance, were prepared by the fusion method in a variety of Suppocire and Witepsol bases with different melting points and hydroxyl values. In vitro release and diffusion characteristics of C31G from different suppository bases were investigated using two different systems. The release from suppositories was determined by using a system without a membrane and the diffusion rate of the released agent was determined through a semipermeable dialyzing tubing. Diffusion kinetics from suppositories were evaluated in terms of the apparent dialytic rate constants using the equation developed by Davis et al. From the results of in vitro studies, Witepsol H15 and Suppocire CM bases were selected as the most suitable ones for the formulations of C31G vaginal suppositories, since it is imperative for topical formulations to release the active substance in high proportions which are not absorbable by the mucosal membranes.
- SourceAvailable from: benthamscience.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaginal delivery is an important route of drug administration for both local and systemic diseases. The vaginal route has some advantages due to its large surface area, rich blood supply, avoidance of the first-pass effect, relatively high permeability to many drugs and self-insertion. The traditional commercial preparations, such as creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are known to reside in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time owing to the self-cleaning action of the vaginal tract, and often require multiple daily doses to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. The vaginal route appears to be highly appropriate for bioadhesive drug delivery systems in order to retain drugs for treating largely local conditions, or for use in contraception. In particular, protection against sexually-transmitted diseases is critical. To prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity, bioadhesive therapeutic systems have been developed in the form of semi-solid and solid dosage forms. The most commonly used mucoadhesive polymers that are capable of forming hydrogels are synthetic polyacrylates, polycarbophil, chitosan, cellulose derivatives (hydroxyethycellulose, hydroxy-propylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose), hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, tragacanth, carrageenan and sodium alginate. The present article is a comprehensive review of the patents related to mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.Recent patents on drug delivery & formulation. 11/2009; 3(3):193-205.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaginal delivery is an important route of drug administration for both local and systemic diseases. The vaginal route has some advantages due to its large surface area, rich blood supply, avoidance of the first-pass effect, relatively high permeability to many drugs and self-insertion. The traditional commercial preparations, such as creams, foams, gels, irrigations and tablets, are known to reside in the vaginal cavity for a relatively short period of time owing to the selfcleaning action of the vaginal tract, and often require multiple daily doses to ensure the desired therapeutic effect. The vaginal route appears to be highly appropriate for bioadhesive drug delivery systems in order to retain drugs for treating largely local conditions, or for use in contraception. In particular, protection against sexually-transmitted diseases is critical. To prolong the residence time in the vaginal cavity, bioadhesive therapeutic systems have been developed in the form of semi-solid and solid dosage forms. The most commonly used mucoadhesive polymers that are capable of forming hydrogels are synthetic polyacrylates, polycarbophil, chitosan, cellulose derivatives (hydroxyethycellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose), hyaluronic acid derivatives, pectin, tragacanth, carrageenan and sodium alginate. The present article is a comprehensive review of the patents related to mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems.Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation 10/2009; 3(3):193-205.
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey
Effect of suppository bases on the release properties of a potent
antimicrobial agent (C31 G)
S. ÇALIŞ, M. ŞUMNU and A. A. HINCAL
C31G is a specific formulation which contains equal
molar concentrations of alkyi N-betaine and alkyl
N.N-dimethylamine oxide. Vaginal suppositories con-
taining 500 mg of C31G, this potent antimicrobial
substance, were prepared by the fusion method in a
variety of Suppocire® and Witepsol® bases with differ-
ent melting points and hydroxyl values. In vitro release
and diffusion characteristics of C31G from different
suppository bases were investigated using two different
systems. The release from suppositories was determined
by using a system without a membrane and the diffusion
rate of the released agent was determined through a
semipermeable dialyzing tubing. Diffusion kinetics from
suppositories were evaluated in terms of the apparent
dialytic rate constants using the equation developed by
Davis et al.
From the results of in vitro studies, Witepsol H 15 and
Suppocire CM bases were selected as the most suitable
ones for the formulations of C31G vaginal supposito-
ries, since it is imperative for topical formulations to
release the active substance in high proportions which
are not absorbable by the mucosal membranes.
Freisetzung der antimikrobiellen Substanz C31G aus
gehalte hergestellt. Die Erfassung der Freisetzung von
C31G erfolgte in einem System ohne Membran, die
der Diffusionsrate mit einem semipermeablen Dialy-
Fur Vaginalsuppositorien mit
Witepsol H 15 und Suppocire CM als am geeignetsten.
500 mg C31G
C31G erwiesen sich
C31G is a unique mixture of synthetic amphoteric surface
active compounds and contains equal molar concentrations
of alkyl dimethyl glycine (alkyl N-betaine, coco betaine; 1)
and alkyl N,N-dimethylamine oxide (Cocoamine oxide; 2).
This mixture is patented in the USA  and is still under
research. This composition exhibits germicidal and deodoriz-
ing properties and its use causes long term inhibition of body
odor. C31G promotes the healing of infected and non-
infected wounds in which the healing is histologically charac-
terized by an increased rate of wound closure, increase in
fibroblast infiltration and epithelization. Some studies have
been reported on C31G concerning its healing effect on incised
guinea pig wounds , evaluation of its effectiveness in
dentistry by glycolytic tests and mouthwash formulations
[3. 4], comparing its antipseudomonal activity against other
topical agents . evaluation of its surface active properties
 and evaluation of its irritation on albino rabbit eyes .
Due to the stated properties of C31G. the goal of this work
was to prepare topical vaginal suppository formulations which
release the active substance in a short time but do not allow
absorption of the active substance through the membranes of
2. Investigations, results and discussion
The rate of drug release from dissolved or molten suppositories
and the diffusion rate of dissolved drug molecules across the
mucosal membranes are rate limiting factors of drug absorp-
tion in rectal or vaginal administration [8, 9]. As physico-
chemical properties of the base and the active substance
determine the drug release, they are also known to be the
main parameters affecting the absorption rate of drugs.
In our work, in order to investigate the effect of suppository
bases on the release and diffusion characteristics of C31G,
one hydrophilic (glycerinated gelatin) and six lipophilic (Wi-
tepsol® H15, Witepsol W31. Witepsol S55, Suppocire® AM,
Suppocire CM and Massa Estarinum B) bases were tested.
The amount of released and diffused C31G was found to be
highest from glycerinated gelatin, therefore, water-miscible
bases seemed to be more appropriate for systemic purposes
than for topical application. Previously, it was also reported
[10-12] that higher blood levels were obtained with water-
soluble bases compared to lipophilic ones.
Synthetic suppository bases are mixtures of fatty acid esters
with certain amounts of glycerides and their hydroxyl values
represent the presence of mono and diglycerides, which also
indicate the availability of free hydroxyl groups in the bases.
In our formulations, higher release of C31G was predicted
from bases with low hydroxyl values, as the chemical interac-
tion between the active substance and the base was expected
to be the least. In dissolution studies, at the end of 6 h, the
highest percentages of released values were obtained from
Suppocire CM, Witepsol H15 and Suppocire AM bases being
62.3%, 53.5% and 49.1%, respectively (Fig. 1). So, among the
bases tested, Suppocire kinds seemed to release the active
substance at higher levels. The melting range of Suppocire CM
is 38-40 oC and Suppocire AM is 35-36.5 oC and the hy-
Pharmazie 49(1994). H. 5
droxyl values of both bases are 6. The drug release from
Suppocire CM was found to be higher than Suppocire AM.
As these bases contain various kinds and amounts of mono
and diglycerides. the active substance C31G might be in-
corporated with these mono and diglycerides. in different
proportions which might have caused a difference in release
Drug partitioning is a function of the nature of base and it
corresponds to the affinity of the drug towards bases. When
there is low affinity between the drug and the base, the release
rate of the substances having high solubility in aqueous media
are expected to be high. The partitioning of the drug when
using bases with high hydroxyl values appears to favour the
lipid phase which is indicated by the lower rate of release. In
our study, Witepsol H15. Suppocire AM and Suppocire CM
bases were determined to have the lowest partitioning coeffi-
cients (0.45, 1.20, 1.57, respectively) (Table 1). As these three
bases also have low hydroxyl values (15 < 6 < 6) when
compared to others, it is possible to explain the high release
percentage of the active substance C31G from the vaginal
suppositories prepared using these bases.
Table 1: Evaluation of the partitioning of C31G between various
suppository bases/pH 8 buffer and chloroform/pH 8 buffer
(n = 3)
Base Partition coefficient [K]
Witepsol W 31
Massa Estarinum B
dissolves in aqueous media in a short time and docs not
increase the viscosity of the dissolution medium, therefore in
most cases the active substance is released and diffused faster
than the lipophilic vehicles. In this work. the diffused amount
was decreased from Suppocire AM (12.26%). Witepsol H15
(6.18%), Massa Estarinum B (4.61%) and Suppocire CM
(4.56%) bases (Fig. 2). As Suppocire AM base has a low
hydroxyl value and a low melting range (35-36.5 oC). release
and diffusion of the active substance into the medium was
determined to be fast.
The diffusion behaviour of the active substance from supposi-
tories was also evaluated kinetically in terms of the apparent
dialytic rate constants (Table 2).
Table 2: Calculated dialytic rate constants
Base Dialvtic rate constant k [h ']
Massa Estarinum B
* Calculated after 2 h
The equation developed by Davis et al.  was used for the
calculation of the apparent dialytic rate constant: where V,
is the volume of the test medium in the dialysis bag, V,, the
volume of the test medium outside the dialysis bag, A,, the
amount of drug dialyzed, A, the total amount of drug in the
test sample, t the time, and k the apparent dialytic rate
log V0At - (V0+Vi)A0 = - V0+Vi
C31G was found to be released less from Witepsol S55,
Witepsol W31 and Massa Estarinum B bases. This might be
due to the high hydroxyl (50-60, 25-35, 20-30 respectively)
but low esterification values and also high partition coefficients
they possess. Witepsol W31 also has the highest melting range
of all the bases used (except for Suppocire CM). This might
be an explanation for its low release. Witepsol S series com-
prises special grades and certain surface active agents which
could act to enhance or retard drug release [13-15].
For topically applied formulations, the active substance is
desired to be released from the bases in high proportions, but
should not be absorbed from the membranes. Therefore we
examined the diffusion behaviour of the active substance after
it had been released from the base. The highest diffusion of
the active substance was obtained from the water soluble base
glycerinated gelatin which was beyond our scope. This base
Fig.2: In vitro diffusion of C3 IG following the release from various suppository
bases. I: Witepsol H 15, 2: Witepsol W 31, 3: Witepsol S55. 4: Massa
Estarinum B, 5: Suppocire AM, 6: glycerinated gelatin, 7: Suppocire CM
Pharmazie 49 (1994), H. 5
When the term log [V0A - (V0+Vi) A0] representing the
amount of drug remaining in the dialysis bag is plotted c.s-
time, a straight line is obtained. The apparent dialytic rate
constant k can be evaluated as follows:
In the Tables 1 and 2 the values of apparent dialytic rate
constant k, and the partition coefficient values K of each
investigated suppository base were given. Data showed that
the drug release was fastest from suppositories prepared with
glycerinated gelatin and Suppocire AM. Witepsol H 15 with
the lowest partition coefficient released the drug at a slower
rate, therefore, a general correlation between K and k values
could not be drawn.
Before the formulation attempt and in vitro testing in a bac-
teriological medium, a microbiological study of C31G was
accomplished in which the minimum inhibitory concentra-
tions (MIC) and the effective period for cidal concentrations
(MCC) of the C31G mixture were determined on 13 mi-
crooorganisms, a series of common bacteria and fungi that
are known to cause vaginitis by the microtiter dilution pro-
cedure . Also, in this previous work, the antimicrobial effi-
ciency of this compound was evaluated on 105 culture sam-
ples which were obtained from patients of Turkish popula-
tion having vaginal infection. As a result, E. coli (45.45%) and
S. aureus (19.69%) were found to be the most frequently
observed microorganisms in these samples and C31G was
determined to be active on microorganisms obtained from the
vagina at very low concentrations in a short time. The MIC
of C31G on S. aurens was determined to be 0.006% actives
and on E. coli 0.2% actives.
After these microbiological findings, an attempt has been made
to evaluate the in vitro release properties of the two formula-
tions of C31G prepared with Witepsol H 15 (formulation A)
and Suppocire CM (formulation B) bases in a bacteriological
-(slope) (2.3) (ViV0)
Vi + V0
Fig. 3: Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficiency of formulations A and B on
S. aurrus as a function of time
release medium using the procedure explained in the experi-
mental section. For the 5. aureus strain, in the control plate,
the growth of microorganisms were obvious (Fig. 3).
The microorganism growth was evaluated continuously in
15 min intervals and the reduction in microorganism colonies
was clearly observed. When the 1 h sample was examined
closely, this reduction became so clear, indicating the micro-
biological efficiency of C31G after being released from the
suppositories. At the end of 1.5 h. there was no growth of
microorganism on the plates where formulations A and B
were applied, indicating that this was an adequate period for
the active substance to be 100% effective on S. aureus strain.
The results obtained from formulations A and B against the
E. coli strain are shown in Fig. 4. Formulations A and B were
100% effective against the E. coli strain in 4.5 h.
As a result of this present work, Witepsol H 15 and Suppo-
cire CM suppository bases from which the highest release and
the lowest diffusion rates were obtained were concluded to
be the most suitable bases for the vaginal application ofC31G,
a potent antimicrobial agent, for treatment of vaginitis.
Microbiological experiments concerning in vitro release also
revealed that after being released from suppositories, C31G
showed antimicrobial activity against the tested microorga-
nisms. After controlling the vaginal irritancy of C31G, these
findings should also be confirmed by in vivo experiments.
3.1. Materials and instruments
C31G (29.5% actives. Hunlerdon Pharmaceuticals. batch No: 001 USA),
Witepsol H 15.Witepsol S55, Witepsol W31.Massa Estarinum B (Dynamit
Fig. 4: Evaluation of the antimicrobial efficiency of formulations A and B on
E. coli as a function of time
Nobel).Suppocire AM. Suppocire CM (Gatlefosscl. gelalin. glycerol (Merck).
dialyzing tubing (Spectropor 2. molecular cut off: 12000- 14000. cylinder dia-
meter: 28.6 mm). Lclheen agar (Difco). Mueller-Hinlon broth (Oxoid). All
materials were used as received from the manufacturer or distributor with no
Ultrasonic bath (Bransonic 220). refrigerated centrifuge (MLW. model K 24).
UV spectropholometer (Hitachi, model 220)
3.2.1. Preparation of suppositories
Vaginal suppositories containing 500 ing of C31G were prepared by the fusion
method using a water-soluble base. givcerinaled gelatin and six oleagenous
bases—Witepsol H 15, Witepsol S55, Witepsol W31. Suppocire AM. Suppocire
CM. Massa Estarinum B. After calibration of the molds, a sufficient amount
of C31G for 12 suppositories was incorporated by geometric dilution into the
just molten bases.After thorough mixing, the mass was poured into unlubricated
molds and allowed to solidify at room temperature. Blank suppositories
containing no active substance were prepared to determine the absorbance of
each base. Suppositories were packed in tightly closed containers and stored
in a refrigerator. They were left at room temperature for 12 h before carrying
out each evaluation.
3.2.2. Evaluation of suppositories
220.127.116.11. Assay procedure
The ampholeric surface active components of C31G form a precipitate at pH 1
when reacted with ammonium Reineckate. For quantitative determination, the
precipitated complex is dissolved in acetone and the color is determined
at 525 nm [18, 19].
18.104.22.168. Determination of partition coefficient
Phosphate buffer solution (10 ml. pH 8) containing 5 mg/ml of active substance.
was agitated with each of the lipophilic suppository bases (3 g) in screw-capped
tubes. Tubes were placed in a mechanical shaker with a thermostated water
bath at 38 °C. At this temperature, all of the bases melted. Tubes were agitated
at 50 cpm for 6 h which was adequate to attain equilibrium. After equilibrium.
the tubes were placed in the refrigerator in order to separate the lipophilic
phase by freezing.Then. the aqueous phase was filtered and the active substance
assayed spectrophotometrically. The partition coefficient of C31G between the
lipid and water phases was calculated according to Ritschel . Data given
in Table 1 are the results of three parallel experiments.
22.214.171.124. In vitro determination of the release of C31G
The release system was composed of a glass beaker containing 20 ml phosphate
buffer (pH 8) in which a suppository was placed and stirred with a magnet at
100 rpm at 37 ± 0.5 oC. At constant time intervals (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h) 2 ml
samples were removed from the release medium and assayed by UV spectro-
photometry  to determine the release characteristics.
126.96.36.199. In ritro determination of the diffusion of C31G
The prepared suppositories were tested for in vitro diffusion, adopting the
method of Plaxco et al. . Dialyzing bags were prepared from dialyzing
cellophane tubing (Spectropor 2) tied with cotton thread and soaked overnight
in the phosphate buffer solution (pH 8). After rinsing the bags twice, 20 ml of
phosphate buffer solution (pH 8), one suppository and glass beads with 0.3 cm
diameter, in order to prevent the precipitation ofC31G due to the low viscosity
of some bases used. were placed in each bag and suspended in a glass diffusion
cell containing 100ml of the phosphate buffer solution (Fig, 5). The diffusion
system was placed in a constant temperature water bath at 37 ± 0.5 oC and
agitated with a magnetic stirrer at 200 rpm. At constant time intervals, samples
(5 ml) were removed from the diffusion cell and assayed to obtain a diffusion
profile. Phosphate buffer (5 ml) were added to the medium to compensate for
Fig.5. In vitro diffusion system
Pharmazie 49 (1994). H. 5
Sampling. The absorbances were measured colorimetrically at 525 nm and the
concentrations were obtained from the standard curve.
188.8.131.52. Microbiological studies
Tile antimicrobial clficiency of two formulations which were concluded to be
tlie most appropriate (prepared with Witcpsol H15 and Suppocire CM bases.
formulation A and B respectively) for the aim of this work were investinated
on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus strains1—the most frequently observed
microorganisms, in culture sampies of Turkish women  — as a function of
Culture samples (10 ml) of microorganisms (5.105 CFU/ml) were added to
10 ml bacteriological medium (Mueller Hinton broth), then a suppository was
placed and incubated at 37 oC.
Samples were taken at 15 min intervals with a sterile loop and exposed to
Letheen Agar. After incubating the plates for 18 h at 37 0C. microorganism
growth was evaluated.
1 Isolates of Microbiology Department of Faculty of Medicine of Hacettepe
1 Micheals. E. B.: US patent 4, 107, 328 (1978)
2 Micheals. E. B.: Hahn. E. C.: Kenyon. A. J.: Am. J. Vet. Res. 44, 1378
3 Corner. A. M.: Dolan, M. M., Malamud. M. M.: Yankell, S. L.: J. Dent,
Res. 65, 274 (1986)
4 Malamud. D.: Corner. A. M.; Dolan. M. M.; Hammond, B. F.: ibid. 65.
5 Stieritz, D. D.: Bondi. A.: McDermott. D.: Micheals, E. B.: J. Antimicrob.
Chemother. 9, 133 (1982)
6 Unlu. N.. Calis, S.: Sumnu. M.: Hincal. A. A.: Boll. Chim. Farm. 130, 234
Pharmazie 49 (1994). H. 5
7. Unlu, N.: Calis, S.: Irkec, M., Aksoy, F.: Orhan, M.: Sumnu, M.: Hincal,
A. A.: STP Pharma Sci. (Special Issue on Ocular Administration) 2, 45
8. de Blaey, C. J.: Poiderman, J.: Rationales in the Design of Rectal and
Vaginal Delivery From of Drugs, p. 237; in: Ariens. E.J.(Ed.) 1: Drug Design.
Vol. 9. Academic Press. New York 1980
9. Casahoursat. L.: S.T.P. Pharma 4, 572 (1988)
10. Vidras, N. J.: Vincent, E. R.: Bohidor, N. R.: Plakogiannis, F. M.: J. Pharm.
Sci. 71, 945 (1982)
11. Kakemi, K.: Arita, T.: Muranishi, S.: Chem. Pharm. Bull. 13, 976 (1965)
12. Kawashima, S.: Nakazawa, H.: Fujiwara, H.: ibid. 36, 1475 (1986)
13. Becirevic, C, M.: Petncic, V.: Kellay, N,: Pharmazie 39. 828 (1984)
14. Othman, S.: Muti, H.: Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 12, 1813 (1986)
15. Plaxco, J. M.: Free, C. B.: Rowland, C, R.: J. Pharm. Sci. 56, 809 (1967)
16. Davis, R. E.: Hartman, C, W.: Eincher, J. H.: ibid. 60, 429 (1971)
17. Calis, S.: Yulug, N.: Sumnu, M.: Ayhan, A.: Hincal, A. A.: Boll. Chim.
Farm, 131, 335 (1992)
18. Nishida, M.: Ryuichi, M.: Walanabe, V,: Usui, K.: Kanazawa Daigaku
Kogakubu Kiyo 4, 189 (1966)
19. Calis, S,: Calis, U.: Sumnu, M.: Hincal, A. A.: Doga-Tr. J. Pharm. 1, 97
20. Ritschel, W. A.: Handbook of Basic Pharmacokinetics. 3rd Ed., p. 71. Drug
Intelligence Publications. 1986
Received March 15. 1993 Ass. Prof. Dr. Sema Çaliş
Revised form August 18. 1993 Hacettepe University
Faculty of Pharmacy
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology