Restrictive smoking policies in the workplace: effects on smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption.
ABSTRACT Thirty-two worksites participating in a randomized trial of worksite health promotion aimed at reducing smoking and obesity were categorized at baseline and 2 years later as having either restrictive or unrestrictive smoking policies. Between the two assessment points, 16 sites received health promotion interventions.
At baseline 15 sites had restrictive policies and 17 unrestrictive policies. Smoking restrictions were associated with significantly lower smoking prevalence and higher lifetime quit rates among ever smokers. They also were associated with more recent quit attempts and lower daily cigarette consumption, although these effects were not significant. Between baseline and follow-up, 9 of the 17 worksites that had few smoking restrictions at baseline became restrictive. Although neither baseline smoking policies nor changes in smoking policy predicted change in smoking prevalence or in the frequency of quit attempts, smokers in sites changing from unrestrictive to restrictive policies reported a significant reduction in daily cigarette consumption.
The worksite health promotion program was successful in reducing smoking prevalence in intervention sites compared to controls. However, the existence of restrictive smoking policies neither helped nor hindered these intervention efforts. The present data are believed to support the idea that restrictive smoking policies have beneficial effects on the smoking habits of employees, but that the magnitude of this effect is modest.
- SourceAvailable from: David Theodore Levy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Our objective was to review the research on the effects of public clean air laws on smoking rates, compare these effects to those found in studies on the impact of private worksite restrictions and derive estimates of the potential reductions in smoking rates that might be expected from the implementation of the two types of policies. Data sources were computerized databases, references identified from pertinent peer-reviewed journal articles and books, and suggestions by experts on tobacco control policy. Comprehensive public clean air laws have the potential to reduce prevalence and consumption rates of the entire population (including non-working and non-indoor working smokers) by about 10%. Studies on private worksite regulations also suggest that strong worksite restrictions have the potential to reduce the prevalence rate of the entire population by about 6% over the long-term and the quantity smoked by continuing smokers by 28%, depending on the length of time after the ban. Further research is needed on the effects of the different types of public clean air policies on the entire smoking population and on different sociodemographic groups, how the effects of public clean indoor air laws depend on private restrictions already in place, and how the effect of private restrictions depend on whether or not they are supported by public clean air laws.Health Education Research 11/2003; 18(5):592-609. DOI:10.1093/her/cyf045 · 1.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A model of strategic decision making was applied to study the implementation of worksite smoking policy. This model assumes there is no best way of implementing smoking policies, but that 'the best way' depends on how decision making fits specific content and context factors. A case study at Wehkamp, a mail-order company, is presented to illustrate the usefulness of this model to understand how organizations implement smoking policies. Interview data were collected from representatives of Wehkamp, and pre- and post-ban survey data were collected from employees. After having failed to solve the smoking problem in a more democratic way, Wehkamp's top management choose a highly confrontational and decentralized decision-making approach to implement a complete smoking ban. This resulted in an effective smoking ban, but was to some extent at the cost of employees' satisfaction with the policy and with how the policy was implemented. The choice of implementation approach was contingent upon specific content and context factors, such as managers' perception of the problem, leadership style and legislation. More case studies from different types of companies are needed to better understand how organizational factors affect decision making about smoking bans and other health promotion innovations.Health Education Research 09/1999; 14(4):519-31. · 1.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While comprehensive tobacco policies have reduced the prevalence of smoking in Canada, some groups remain vulnerable to tobacco use and display high rates of smoking. This article reviews three types of tobacco policies--tax and price, smoking location restrictions and sales restrictions--and examines the consequences for Aboriginal people, youth and low-income people. A better practices review model was used to assess the strength of studies published between 1990 and 2004 that examined the effects of these tobacco policies on the three vulnerable populations of interest. A total of 72 studies were assessed and 42 judged medium or high strength. A gender-based and diversity analysis was applied to assess the differential impacts on females and males and/or diverse characteristics within these populations. Intended and unintended consequences were examined. Few studies assessed the potential or differential effects of tobacco policies on the three selected populations. In these, it was difficult to disentangle the effects of each policy in a comprehensive tobacco control environment, and there is need for improved indicators and greater attention to sex and gender analysis. Research is required to measure the intended and unintended impacts of tobacco policies on populations vulnerable to tobacco use. There are problems in assessing these studies that could be resolved with more precise indicator development. An equity-based framework for assessing the effects of tobacco policies is needed that is conceptually linked to health determinants and inequities. The article concludes with a set of recommendations for research, evaluation, policy and ethics arising from this review.Canadian journal of public health. Revue canadienne de santé publique 97(4):310-5. · 1.02 Impact Factor