Restrictive Smoking Policies in the Workplace: Effects on Smoking Prevalence and Cigarette Consumption

Division of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis 55454-1015.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 02/1994; 23(1):78-82. DOI: 10.1006/pmed.1994.1011
Source: PubMed


Thirty-two worksites participating in a randomized trial of worksite health promotion aimed at reducing smoking and obesity were categorized at baseline and 2 years later as having either restrictive or unrestrictive smoking policies. Between the two assessment points, 16 sites received health promotion interventions.
At baseline 15 sites had restrictive policies and 17 unrestrictive policies. Smoking restrictions were associated with significantly lower smoking prevalence and higher lifetime quit rates among ever smokers. They also were associated with more recent quit attempts and lower daily cigarette consumption, although these effects were not significant. Between baseline and follow-up, 9 of the 17 worksites that had few smoking restrictions at baseline became restrictive. Although neither baseline smoking policies nor changes in smoking policy predicted change in smoking prevalence or in the frequency of quit attempts, smokers in sites changing from unrestrictive to restrictive policies reported a significant reduction in daily cigarette consumption.
The worksite health promotion program was successful in reducing smoking prevalence in intervention sites compared to controls. However, the existence of restrictive smoking policies neither helped nor hindered these intervention efforts. The present data are believed to support the idea that restrictive smoking policies have beneficial effects on the smoking habits of employees, but that the magnitude of this effect is modest.

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    • "Smoke-free homes have been shown to reduce exposure to SHS for both nonsmokers and children [12, 21–25]. Additionally, both longitudinal and cross-sectional studies show that smokers who have implemented smoke-free home rules are significantly more likely to make a quit attempt, be abstinent and smoke fewer cigarettes per day [19, 26–31]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Very few community-based intervention studies have examined how to effectively increase the adoption of smoke-free homes. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term outcomes of a brief, four-component intervention for promoting smoke-free home policies among low-income households. We recruited forty participants (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers) to receive the intervention at two-week intervals. The design was a pretest-posttest with follow-up at two weeks after intervention. The primary outcome measure was self-reported presence of a total home smoking ban. At follow-up, 78% of participants reported having tried to establish a smoke-free rule in their home, with significantly more nonsmokers attempting a smoke-free home than smokers (P = .03). These attempts led to increased smoking restrictions, that is, going from no ban to a partial or total ban, or from a partial to a total ban, in 43% of the homes. At follow-up, 33% of the participants reported having made their home totally smoke-free. Additionally, smokers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Results suggest that the intervention is promising and warrants a rigorous efficacy trial.
    Journal of Environmental and Public Health 05/2012; 2012:951426. DOI:10.1155/2012/951426
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    • "Reductions in quantity smoked appeared to show their greatest decline within the ®rst 6 months and then decreased over time [e.g. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1990; Hudzinski and Frohlich, 1990; Stave and Jackson, 1991; Jeffery et al., 1994; Olive and Ballard, 1996]. By contrast, prevalence and quit rates generally showed no or little immediate effect [e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to review the research on the effects of public clean air laws on smoking rates, compare these effects to those found in studies on the impact of private worksite restrictions and derive estimates of the potential reductions in smoking rates that might be expected from the implementation of the two types of policies. Data sources were computerized databases, references identified from pertinent peer-reviewed journal articles and books, and suggestions by experts on tobacco control policy. Comprehensive public clean air laws have the potential to reduce prevalence and consumption rates of the entire population (including non-working and non-indoor working smokers) by about 10%. Studies on private worksite regulations also suggest that strong worksite restrictions have the potential to reduce the prevalence rate of the entire population by about 6% over the long-term and the quantity smoked by continuing smokers by 28%, depending on the length of time after the ban. Further research is needed on the effects of the different types of public clean air policies on the entire smoking population and on different sociodemographic groups, how the effects of public clean indoor air laws depend on private restrictions already in place, and how the effect of private restrictions depend on whether or not they are supported by public clean air laws.
    Health Education Research 11/2003; 18(5):592-609. DOI:10.1093/her/cyf045 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, some studies show an effect of smoking bans on worksite smoking prevalence [e.g. (Millar, 1988; Borland, 1991; Sorensen et al., 1991; Stave and Jackson, 1991; Woodruff et al., 1993)], but not all (Petersen et al., 1988; Biener et al., 1989; Borland et al., 1990; Gottlieb et al., 1990; Daughton et al., 1992; Jeffery et al., 1994). As part of a smoking M. C. Willemsen et al. policy, employers may offer their smoking employees methods to quit smoking. "
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    ABSTRACT: A model of strategic decision making was applied to study the implementation of worksite smoking policy. This model assumes there is no best way of implementing smoking policies, but that 'the best way' depends on how decision making fits specific content and context factors. A case study at Wehkamp, a mail-order company, is presented to illustrate the usefulness of this model to understand how organizations implement smoking policies. Interview data were collected from representatives of Wehkamp, and pre- and post-ban survey data were collected from employees. After having failed to solve the smoking problem in a more democratic way, Wehkamp's top management choose a highly confrontational and decentralized decision-making approach to implement a complete smoking ban. This resulted in an effective smoking ban, but was to some extent at the cost of employees' satisfaction with the policy and with how the policy was implemented. The choice of implementation approach was contingent upon specific content and context factors, such as managers' perception of the problem, leadership style and legislation. More case studies from different types of companies are needed to better understand how organizational factors affect decision making about smoking bans and other health promotion innovations.
    Health Education Research 09/1999; 14(4):519-31. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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