What role for insecticides in vector control programs?
ABSTRACT Vector-borne diseases including dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, leishmaniasis, and filariasis remain severe public health problems in most of the countries in which they are endemic. In some cases, their incidence is increasing and they are spreading to new geographic areas. For a number of the infections, the most effective manner of controlling their transmission is through control of their vectors. However, in some instances, such as dengue and Chagas' disease, there is no alternative. Most countries that are endemic for vector-borne diseases maintain vector control services, and most large tropical and semitropical cities also have pest control programs, mainly against pest mosquitoes. Virtually all of the vector and pest control programs depend on the use of insecticides formulated as larvicides, adulticides, baits, or insecticide impregnated bed nets. For many years, the development of new insecticides for use in public health programs was encouraged and supported by multilateral and bilateral health agencies, including the implementation of field trials in endemic areas. Due to the development of insecticide resistance, toxicologic and environmental considerations, and the cost of development and of registration, the number of compounds available for use has declined while the number of new insecticides submitted for laboratory and field trials to the World Health Organization has dwindled even more. The recrudescence of vector-borne diseases, the rapid pace of urbanization, lagging development of environmental services in many tropical cities, and difficulties encountered in ensuring the community's cooperation in its own protection through environmental measures make imperative the continued availability of pesticides for public health use. Since only the pesticide manufacturing industry has the combination of technical and financial resources to promulgate the research and development of new pesticides and pesticide groups, it is suggested that governments, bilateral, and multilateral organizations explore the manner in which they can assist industry in the development of new compounds and guarantee the continued availability of effective and safe pesticides for vector-control programs.
- SourceAvailable from: Karunamoorthi KaliyaperumalHealth Scope. 01/2013; 1(4):166-173.
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ABSTRACT: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) pose a significant threat to global health, causing human disease with increasing geographic range and severity. The recent availability of the genome sequences of medically important mosquito species has kick-started investigations into the molecular basis of how mosquito vectors control arbovirus infection. Here, we discuss recent findings concerning the role of the mosquito immune system in antiviral defense, interactions between arboviruses and fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy, and arboviral suppression of mosquito defense mechanisms. This knowledge provides insights into co-evolutionary processes between vector and virus and also lays the groundwork for the development of novel arbovirus control strategies that target the mosquito vector.Viruses. 01/2014; 6(11):4479-4504.
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ABSTRACT: The widespread application of pesticides has attracted the attention of ecol- ogists as we struggle to understand the impacts of these chemicals on natural communities. While we have a large number of laboratory-based, single-species studies of pesticides, such studies can only examine direct effects. However, in natural communities, species can experience both direct and indirect effects. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment on aquatic communities containing three tadpole species (Hyla versicolor, Bufo americanus, and Rana pipiens), zooplankton, and algae. We then manipulated a factorial combination of predators (no predators; newts, Notophthalmus viridescens; and larval beetles, Dytiscus sp.) and pesticides (no pesticides, the insecticide malathion, and the herbicide Roundup). We found that Roundup (1.3 mg of active ingredient/L) had substantial direct negative effects on the tadpoles, reducing total tadpole survival and biomass by 40%. However, Roundup had no indirect effects on the amphibian community via predator survival or algal abundance. Malathion (0.3 mg/L) had few direct effects on the tadpoles. Malathion caused no indirect effects with one of the predators (red-spotted newts) but caused substantial positive effects on amphibians (a five-fold increase in total tadpole survival and biomass) due to the sensitivity of the predatory beetles to the insecticide. Thus, while high concen- trations of malathion can directly kill larval anurans, more ecologically relevant concen- trations can have large positive effects in mesocosms by removing predatory insects. These results make it clear that pesticides can have both direct and indirect effects in natural communities and that these effects critically depend upon the composition of the community.Ecological Applications - ECOL APPL. 01/2005; 15(4):1125-1134.