Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in fallopian tube tissue in women with postinfectious tubal infertility.
ABSTRACT Biopsy tissues from women with postinfectious tubal infertility were studied for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis.
Tubal biopsy specimens from 25 women with postinfectious tubal infertility undergoing laparoscopy for repair of fallopian tubes were evaluated by culture, in situ hybridization. Immunocytochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Serum was also tested for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies.
Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in postinfectious tubal biopsy specimens in three of 25 patients by culture, 12 of 24 by in situ hybridization, 15 of 22 by immunoperoxidase stain, and two of 10 by transmission electron microscopy. Serum antibody against Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 15 of 21 patients.
Chlamydia trachomatis deoxyribonucleic acid or antigens were detected at a high percentage (19/24 women) in the biopsy tissues of the fimbrial and peritubal adhesions by in situ hybridization or immunoperoxidase stain, suggesting a persistent infection in these women even after antibiotic treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 06/2014; 4:73. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vitro models of Chlamydia trachomatis growth have long been studied to predict growth in vivo. Alternative or persistent growth modes in vitro have been shown to occur under the influence of numerous stressors but have not been studied in vivo. Here, we report the development of methods for sampling human infections from the endocervix in a manner that permits a multifaceted analysis of the bacteria, host and the endocervical environment. Our approach permits evaluating total bacterial load, transcriptional patterns, morphology by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, and levels of cytokines and nutrients in the infection microenvironment. By applying this approach to two pilot patients with disparate infections, we have determined that their contrasting growth patterns correlate with strikingly distinct transcriptional biomarkers, and are associated with differences in local levels of IFNγ. Our multifaceted approach will be useful to dissect infections in the human host and be useful in identifying patients at risk for chronic disease. Importantly, the molecular and morphological analyses described here indicate that persistent growth forms can be isolated from the human endocervix when the infection microenvironment resembles the in vitro model of IFNγ-induced persistence.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 06/2014; 4:71. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Interaction of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) with the host cell surface during Chlamydia trachomatis/HSV co-infection stimulates chlamydiae to become persistent. During viral entry, gD interacts with one of 4 host co-receptors: HVEM (herpes virus entry mediator), nectin-1, nectin-2 and 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate. HVEM and nectin-1 are high-affinity entry receptors for both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Nectin-2 mediates HSV-2 entry but is inactive for HSV-1, while 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate facilitates HSV-1, but not HSV-2, entry. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses demonstrate that HeLa and HEC-1B cells express nectin-1 and nectin-2, but not HVEM. Because both HSV-1 and HSV-2 trigger persistence, these data suggest that nectin-1 is the most likely co-receptor involved. Co-infections with nectin-1 specific HSV-1 mutants stimulate chlamydial persistence, as evidenced by aberrant body (AB) formation and decreased production of elementary bodies (EBs). These data indicate that nectin-1 is involved in viral-induced chlamydial persistence. However, inhibition of signal transduction molecules associated with HSV attachment and entry does not rescue EB production during C. trachomatis/HSV-2 co-infection. HSV attachment also does not activate Cdc42 in HeLa cells, as would be expected with viral stimulated activation of nectin-1 signaling. Additionally, immunofluorescence assays confirm that HSV infection decreases nectin-1 expression. Together, these observations suggest that gD binding-induced loss of nectin-1 signaling negatively influences chlamydial growth. Chlamydial infection studies in nectin-1 knockdown (NKD) HeLa cell lines support this hypothesis. In NKD cells, chlamydial inclusions are smaller in size, contain ABs, and produce significantly fewer infectious EBs compared to C. trachomatis infection in control HeLa cells. Overall, the current study indicates that the actions of host molecule, nectin-1, are required for successful C. trachomatis development.Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 11/2014; 4:158. · 2.62 Impact Factor