Maternal growth during pregnancy and the competition for nutrients.
ABSTRACT The influence of maternal growth in knee height during pregnancy on birth weight, gestation, and maternal body composition was examined in 318 teenagers (144 growing, 174 nongrowing) and 276 mature women from the Camden Study. Body-composition differences associated with maternal growth did not arise until after 28 wk gestation, when growing gravidas continued to accrue fat, had larger gestational gains, and retained more of their gestational weight gain postpartum. Nevertheless, still-growing young mothers had infants with lower birth weight, particularly when the mother continued to accrue higher amounts of fat on the arm or back (subscapular site) late in gestation. Thus, despite an apparently sufficient weight gain and the accumulation of abundant stores during pregnancy, young still-growing women appeared not to mobilize fat reserves late in pregnancy to enhance fetal growth, apparently reserving them instead for their own continued development.
SourceAvailable from: Nnaemeka C. IriemenamActa Tropica 12/2014; 144. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.12.009 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background We examined the associations of maternal age with low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth in four cohorts from a middle- and a high-income country, where the patterning of maternal age by socio-economic position (SEP) is likely to differ.Methods Population-based birth cohort studies were carried out in the city of Pelotas, Brazil in 1982, 1993, and 2004, and in Avon, UK in 1991 [Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)]. Adjustment for multiple indicators of SEP were applied.ResultsLow SEP was associated with younger age at childbearing in all cohorts, but the magnitudes of these associations were stronger in ALSPAC. Inverse associations of SEP with LBW and preterm birth were observed in all cohorts. U-shaped associations were observed between maternal age and odds of LBW in all cohorts. After adjustment for SEP, increased odds of LBW for young mothers (<20 years) attenuated to the null but remained or increased for older mothers (≥35 years). Very young (<16 years) maternal age was also associated with both outcomes even after full SEP adjustment. SEP adjusted odds ratio of having a LBW infant in women <16 years and ≥35 years, compared with 25–29 years, were 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 2.20] and 1.66 [95% CI 1.36, 2.02], respectively. The corresponding results for preterm birth were 1.80 [95% CI 1.23, 2.64)] and 1.38 [95% CI 1.15, 1.67], respectively.Conclusion Confounding by SEP explains much of the excess risk of LBW and preterm among babies born to teenage mothers as a whole, but not for mothers aged <16 or ≥35 years. Given that the proportion of women becoming pregnant at <16 years is smaller than for those ≥35 years, the population burden is greater for older age.Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 12/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1111/ppe.12162 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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DESCRIPTION: Conferencia impartida durante los cursos Provinciales de nutrición en La Habana en el cual se explican las implicaciones del estado nutritivo materno y sus relaciones con el desarrollo exitoso gestacional tanto para la madre como para el producto, se enfatizan, además de los elementos generales y hasta novedosos de la evaluación del estado nutricional ( lo bioquímicos y el uso de las nuevas tecnologías), la importancia de la revisión de los elementos dietéticos, antropométricos y clínicos. Se le dedica una especial atención dentro de la evaluación antropométrica a las modificaciones del índice de masa corporal y de la ganancia de peso por ser estos los indicadores de uso práctico más utilizados en la evaluación de la embarazada.