Facilitation of learning in adult and aged rats following bilateral lesions of the tuberomammillary nucleus region.
ABSTRACT In the present experiment, adult (3-month-old) and aged (31-month-old) rats received bilateral DC or sham-lesions in the region of the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus before they were trained and tested on a one-trial step-through inhibitory avoidance task. Bilateral lesions of the TM nucleus led to significantly longer latencies in the step-through response during retention test in both adult and aged rats, indicative of superior learning of the task. Thus, lesions of the TM nucleus may have a facilitatory effect on learning and mnemonic functioning which is possibly related to a lesion-induced disinhibition or facilitation of reinforcement processes ("stamping-in") as revealed in previous studies.
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Article: Histamine in the nervous system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Histamine is a transmitter in the nervous system and a signaling molecule in the gut, the skin, and the immune system. Histaminergic neurons in mammalian brain are located exclusively in the tuberomamillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and send their axons all over the central nervous system. Active solely during waking, they maintain wakefulness and attention. Three of the four known histamine receptors and binding to glutamate NMDA receptors serve multiple functions in the brain, particularly control of excitability and plasticity. H1 and H2 receptor-mediated actions are mostly excitatory; H3 receptors act as inhibitory auto- and heteroreceptors. Mutual interactions with other transmitter systems form a network that links basic homeostatic and higher brain functions, including sleep-wake regulation, circadian and feeding rhythms, immunity, learning, and memory in health and disease.Physiological Reviews 08/2008; 88(3):1183-241. · 30.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animal literature suggests an important role for histamine in memory. In humans, this hypothesis has been scarcely tested and results from studies that have addressed this are conflicting. Second, impaired memory performance may be secondary to sedation. This study aimed to determine whether a centrally active antihistamine impairs memory performance and to dissociate such effects from sedation. Eighteen healthy volunteers received single oral doses of dexchlorpheniramine 4 mg, lorazepam 1mg and placebo in a 3-way, double blind, crossover designed study. The active control lorazepam impaired episodic- and working memory performance and increased sedation, while dexchlorpheniramine only increased sedation.European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 04/2010; 20(4):226-35. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurons that produce histamine are exclusively located in the tuberomamillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus and send widespread projections to almost all brain areas. Neuronal histamine is involved in many physiological and behavioral functions such as arousal, feeding behavior and learning. Although conflicting data have been published, several studies have also demonstrated a role of histamine in the psychomotor and rewarding effects of addictive drugs. Pharmacological and brain lesion experiments initially led to the proposition that the histaminergic system exerts an inhibitory influence on drug reward processes, opposed to that of the dopaminergic system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on this topic and to discuss whether the inhibitory function of histamine on drug reward is supported by current evidence from published results. Research conducted during the past decade demonstrated that the ability of many antihistaminic drugs to potentiate addiction-related behaviors essentially results from non-specific effects and does not constitute a valid argument in support of an inhibitory function of histamine on reward processes. The reviewed findings also indicate that histamine can either stimulate or inhibit the dopamine mesolimbic system through distinct neuronal mechanisms involving different histamine receptors. Finally, the hypothesis that the histaminergic system plays an inhibitory role on drug reward appears to be essentially supported by place conditioning studies that focused on morphine reward. The present review suggests that the development of drugs capable of activating the histaminergic system may offer promising therapeutic tools for the treatment of opioid dependence.Progress in Neurobiology 11/2010; 92(3):421-41. · 9.04 Impact Factor