Interindividual variations in human liver cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the oxidation of drugs, carcinogens and toxic chemicals: studies with liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasians.
ABSTRACT Interindividual variations in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes were investigated in the liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasian patients. The P-450 enzymes used in this study included P-450 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A, and the monooxygenase activities determined were 13 typical P-450 substrates and 9 procarcinogens. Although the total P-450 content was higher in Caucasian (mean, 0.43 nmol/mg of protein) than in Japanese populations (mean, 0.26 nmol/mg of protein), the relative levels (percent of total P-450) of individual forms of P-450 determined immunochemically were not very different except that P-450 2A6 and 2B6 levels were higher in the Caucasians. About 70% of liver P-450 could be accounted for by P-450 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A proteins, and P-450 3A (about 30% of total P-450) and 2C (about 20%) enzymes were found to be the major forms. Considerable levels of P-450 1A2 (about 13%) and 2E1 (about 7%) could be determined, whereas the P-450 2A6 (about 4%), 2D6 (about 2%) and 2B6 (< 1%) were the minor P-450 forms. Differences in some of the P-450 1A2-, 2A6-, 2D6-, 2E1- and 3A4-dependent activities were observed in Japanese and Caucasian populations. No clear sex-related differences in individual P-450 contents and drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing activities were detected in 60 human samples, except that P-450 1A2-dependent activities were found to be higher in mean than in women in the Caucasian population only. A single neonate sample tended to be lower in P-450 1A2-, 2A6- and 2E1-dependent activities. In contrast to rat counterparts, we could not detect apparent developmental changes in P-450 content and activity in humans between 12 and 73 years old. Thus, the results presented in this study provide useful information for the study of drug biotransformation in humans and for the basis of drug toxicities, carcinogenesis and teratogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Alantolactone (AL), one of the main active ingredients in Inula helenium L., has been included in various prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of AL on cytochrome P450 (CYP450) were still unclear. This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of AL on cytochrome P450s in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory effects of AL on the CYPs activity were evaluated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cDNA-expressed enzymes incubation system, and then determined by LC-MS/MS based CYPs probe substrate assay. C57BL/6 mice were treated AL orally (0, 25, 50, 100mg/kg) for 15 days. The inhibitory effects of AL on major Cyps in mice were examined at both the mRNA and enzyme activity levels. AL showed a potent inhibitory effect on CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 3.599 (HLMs) and 3.90 (recombinant CYP3A4) μM, respectively. AL strongly decreased CYP3A4 activity in a dose-dependent but not time-dependent way in HLMs. Results from typical Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that AL could inhibit CYP3A4 activity noncompetitively, with a Ki value of 1.09μM in HLMs. Moreover, activity of CYP2C19 could also be inhibited by AL with IC50 of 36.82μM. Other CYP450 isoforms were not markedly affected by AL. The inhibition was also validated by in vivo study of mice. AL significantly decreased mRNA expression of Cyp2c and 3a family. The study indicates that herb-drug interaction should be paid more attention between AL and drugs metabolized by CYP3A4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2015; 168. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2015.03.061 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (AB-CHMINACA) is a recently introduced synthetic cannabinoid. At present, no information is available about in vitro or in vivo human metabolism of AB-CHMINACA. Therefore, biomonitoring studies to screen AB-CHMINACA consumption lack any information about the potential biomarkers (e.g. metabolites) to target. To bridge this gap, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of AB-CHMINACA using human liver microsomes (HLMs). Formation of AB-CHMINACA metabolites was monitored using liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Twenty-six metabolites of AB-CHMINACA were detected including seven mono-hydroxylated and six di-hydroxylated metabolites and a metabolite resulting from N-dealkylation of AB-CHMINACA, all produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Two carboxylated metabolites, likely produced by amidase enzymes, and five glucuronidated metabolites were also formed. Five mono-hydroxylated and one carboxylated metabolite were likely the major metabolites detected. The involvement of individual CYPs in the formation of AB-CHMINACA metabolites was tested using a panel of seven human recombinant CYPs (rCYPs). All the hydroxylated AB-CHMINACA metabolites produced by HLMs were also produced by the rCYPs tested, among which rCYP3A4 was the most active enzyme. Most of the in vitro metabolites of AB-CHMINACA were also present in urine obtained from an AB-CHMINACA user, therefore showing the reliability of the results obtained using the in vitro metabolism experiments conducted to predict AB-CHMINACA in vivo metabolism. The AB-CHMINACA metabolites to target in biomonitoring studies using urine samples are now reliably identified and can be used for routine analysis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Drug Testing and Analysis 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/dta.1796 · 2.82 Impact Factor
05/2015; , ISBN: 978365969578