Effects of exercise training on absolute and relative measurements of regional adiposity.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the present study was to determine whether absolute and relative measurements of regional adiposity differ in their responses to exercise intervention and which measures are most predictive of changes in plasma lipids, insulin sensitivity and adiposity. Thirteen middle-aged men (BMI 30.4 +/- 1.5 kg/m2, age 47.2 +/- 1.5 years, mean +/- s.e.) were examined before and after 14 weeks of endurance-oriented physical activity (3-4 days/week, 30-45 min/day). Significant (P < 0.05) decreases in the absolute measures of chest, waist and hip girths and sagittal diameter were evident. The waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) of umbilicus/maximal hip and minimal waist/maximal hip decreased significantly (P < 0.05). However, the WHRs of umbilicus/anterior superior iliac spine and umbilicus/greater trochanters did not change due to parallel decreases in waist and hip girths. Trunk and extremity skinfolds decreased significantly (P < 0.05); however, trunk/extremity skinfold ratios were virtually unaltered. The training programme significantly (P < 0.05) increased insulin sensitivity (60%) and HDL (8%), and reduced triglyceride (25%) and total cholesterol/HDL (8%). Changes in these variables were related to changes in sagittal diameter and waist girth. These data indicate different responses to physical activity between measurements of regional adiposity, and emphasize the need for considering absolute central girths such as waist circumference and sagittal diameter when assessing fat topography and cardiovascular risk.
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ABSTRACT: While the benefits of vigorous exercise on body weight and regional adiposity are well established, whether these benefits affect equally the highest and lowest portions of the weight distribution have not been previously reported. The impact of exercise on the more extreme body weights and body circumferences is clinically important because these values represent individuals at greatest health risk. Self-reported weights and body circumferences from a cross-sectional sample of 7288 male and 2326 female runners were divided into five strata, according to the distances run per week and within each stratum the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles were determined. Least-squares regression was then employed at each percentile to determine the dose-response relationship between running distance and adiposity as determined by body mass index (BMI) and self-reported circumferences of the waist, hip and chest. Per kilometer run per week, the associated decline for BMI was three-fold greater at the 95th than at the 5th percentile in men, and six-fold greater at the 95th than the 5th percentile in women (all P<0.001). Reported waist circumference also declined more sharply at the 95th percentile than at the 5th percentile in men (-0.13 +/- 0.02 vs -0.06 +/- 0.01 cm per km/week) and women (-0.18 +/- 0.04 vs -0.05 +/- 0.01 cm per km/week). In women, both hip and chest circumferences declined more sharply per kilometer run at the 95th percentile than at the 5th percentile. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that running promotes the greatest weight loss specifically in those individuals who have the most to gain from losing weight. Comparisons based on average BMI or average body circumferences are likely to underestimate the health benefits of running because of the J-shaped relationship between adiposity and mortality. Whether the observed cross-sectional associations are primarily due to exercise-induced weight loss or self-selection remains to be determined.International Journal of Obesity 01/2004; 28(1):120-8. DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802480 · 5.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) measured in supine position is an alternative adiposity indicator that estimates the quantity of dysfunctional adipose tissue in the visceral depot. However, supine SAD’s distribution and its association with health risk at the population level are unknown. Here we describe standardized measurements of SAD, provide the first, national estimates of the SAD distribution among US adults, and test associations of SAD and other adiposity indicators with prevalent dysglycemia. Methods and Findings In the 2011–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, supine SAD was measured (“abdominal height”) between arms of a sliding-beam caliper at the level of the iliac crests. From 4817 non-pregnant adults (age ≥20; response rate 88%) we used sample weights to estimate SAD’s population distribution by sex and age groups. SAD’s population mean was 22.5 cm [95% confidence interval 22.2–22.8]; median was 21.9 cm [21.6–22.4]. The mean and median values of SAD were greater for men than women. For the subpopulation without diagnosed diabetes, we compared the abilities of SAD, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) to identify prevalent dysglycemia (HbA1c ≥5.7%). For age-adjusted, logistic-regression models in which sex-specific quartiles of SAD were considered simultaneously with quartiles of either WC or BMI, only SAD quartiles 3 (p<0.05 vs quartile 1) and 4 (p<0.001 vs quartile 1) remained associated with increased dysglycemia. Based on continuous adiposity indicators, analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated that the dysglycemia model fit for SAD (age-adjusted) was 0.734 for men (greater than the AUC for WC, p<0.001) and 0.764 for women (greater than the AUC for WC or BMI, p<0.001). Conclusions Measured inexpensively by bedside caliper, SAD was associated with dysglycemia independently of WC or BMI. Standardized SAD measurements may enhance assessment of dysfunctional adiposity.PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e108707. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0108707 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to determine the association between anthropometric indicators of fat distribution, proposed from the circumference measurements of the trunk at the umbilicus level (CUB), two centimeters above the umbilicus (C2U), middle point between the last rib and the iliac crest (CCI), minimum (CM), hip circumference and eight width of skinfolds (EDC), with the metabolic variables of total cholesterol (CT), HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides (TG), uric acid (AU), blood pressure (PA) and blood glucose (GL). The sample involved 102 healthy men, with the age mean of 38.2 + 6.6 years. The statistical analysis showed that the CUB demonstrated correlation with six of the eight metabolic variables. The proportion waist/hip (PC/Q), from the CUB/Q and C2U/Q measurements presented significant association with seven of the eight variables. As for the EDC, the proportion trunk/extreme 3/3 (PT/E – SB +SI+AB/BC+TR+PM) correlated with the HDI-C, TG and diastolic PA. There was no statistic association between systolic PA and anthropometric indicators. The correlation coefficient magnitude varied from r=0,20 to r=0,41, indicating low relationship between trunk circumference, PC/Q and EDC with the metabolic variables. Analyzing the results through multiple regression resources, it is verified that the CUB, C2U, CCI and CMN contributed to the variation of the AU (13,8%), GL (5,1%), TG (17,0%) and diastolic PA (14,5%), respectively. The same happened with the indicators of PC/Q referred to CUB/Q (LDL-C 8,5%) and CCI/Q (HDL-C 4,0%), besides the PT/E 3/3 (HDL-C 9,1%) and PT/E 2/2 (TG 2,2%). The conclusion indicated that it would not be convenient to suggest an anthropometric indicator able to relate with all the investigated metabolic variables. However, it seems that the use of fat distribution indicators coming from the trunk measurement would be preferred rather than the PC/Q and EDC, especially the one that represents the largest anterior extension of the abdomen in the horizontal plane.