Development of the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ): A questionnaire to measure alcohol and opiate dependence in the context of a treatment evaluation package

Leeds Addiction Unit, UK.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 06/1994; 89(5):563-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1994.tb03332.x
Source: PubMed


The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) has been developed as part of a treatment evaluation package. The LDQ is a 10-item, self completion questionnaire designed to measure dependence upon a variety of substances; it has been shown to be understood by users of alcohol and opiates. The questionnaire was designed to be sensitive to change over time and to be sensitive through the range from mild to severe dependence; the follow-up data are insufficient to demonstrate change over time, but are encouraging. It is expected that both clinicians and researchers will find it useful to have a single measure relating to substance use, but not limited by specific substances. All items are scored 0-1-2-3; there are no normative data. The procedure for establishing content validity is described and estimates of concurrent, discriminant and convergent validities are reported; these validities are thought to be satisfactory. A principal components analysis produced a single factor accounting for 64% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was 0.94. Test-retest reliability was found to be 0.95.

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Available from: Duncan Raistrick, Oct 30, 2014
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    • "Covariates were not included in the models of associations between pain and drinking outcomes or in the models of associations between pain and negative affect because we were primarily interested in the bivariate associations among these constructs, without the additional influence of covariates. Covariates in both the COMBINE and UKATT studies included: demographic variables (gender, marital status, employment, income, and minority status), baseline dependence severity [assessed via the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS; Skinner & Horn, 1984) in COMBINE and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ; Raistrick et al., 1994) in UKATT], number of alcohol dependence symptoms based on the "
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    • "Current IQ was measured by the two subtest form of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI; The Psychological Corporation, 1999). Alcohol (and other drug) dependence was measured by the Leeds Dependence Quesionnaire (LDQ; Raistrick et al., 1994), and all participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; Zigmond and Snaith, 1983), as well as a comprehensive assessment of general, injury, clinical, and family history demographics. "
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    • "Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11) (Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995). Substance abuse symptoms were measured using the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ) (Raistrick et al., 1994). Participants provided demographic information (gender, age, language , occupation) and self-reported height and weight (in order to calculate BMI = weight [kg] / height [m 2 ]). "
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