Drugs in semen.
ABSTRACT Over the past 50 years, a decline in the quality of semen has been observed, possibly resulting in a reduction in male fertility. Among the factors affecting semen quality, exposure to drugs is of particular importance. It is known that drugs can be transported to the seminal plasma, which is made up of secretions from the various accessory genital glands. There is evidence that many drugs enter the male genitourinary tract by an ion-trapping process. Lipid solubility and the degree of ionisation of the drug, which depend on the pH of plasma and seminal fluid, are important factors in this process. To date, few studies have been conducted on this topic. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the fluids of the male accessory gland have been performed in the case of chloroquine and caffeine only, while the effects of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid), sulfasalazine, salicylate, propranolol, diltiazem, flunarizine, verapamil, caffeine and nicotine on sperm physiology and morphology have been examined. Although data from the literature are scarce and incomplete, it is evident that many drugs can be excreted into semen. These drugs may interfere with the most common semen characteristics, potentially resulting in a male-mediated teratogenic effect, or local and systemic responses in female recipients. Therefore, it may be advisable to include, in the processes of drug development, pharmacokinetic evaluation of a drug in the semen and analysis of standard microscopic parameters of the semen. This is particularly important for drugs known to concentrate in the semen.
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ABSTRACT: Fertility-related concerns are frequently encountered in the course of providing care to oncologic patients. Male cancer survivors who desire paternity after cancer treatment face the question of whether their posttherapy sperm can be safely used in either natural or assisted conception attempts. Although the reproductive risks of using sperm genetically compromised by chemotherapy or radiotherapy include impaired embryonal development, pregnancy loss, and congenital anomalies in offspring, there is a general lack of consensus in the literature concerning the persistence of sustained genotoxic effects, making it difficult to assuredly quantify the level of risk involved. Transmission of chemotherapeutic agents via seminal plasma is another potential risk that has not yet been well evaluated. Sperm chromosomal aneuploidy rates and DNA fragmentation indices provide means of assessing genomic damage that could prove useful in genetic counseling efforts. Ultimately, additional research is needed to clarify investigational discrepancies and establish a stronger body of evidence that would allow for the development of clinical guidelines to assist cancer patients considering posttreatment conception in their decision-making processes.Fertility and sterility 08/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present paper reports the development and validation of an analytical method for doxycycline quantification in human seminal fluid by HPLC with UV detection. The separation of doxycycline was achieved at 40°C on a reversed-phase C18 column using isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile (A) and water buffered at pH 2.5 with a concentrated orthophosphoric acid (B) in the volume ratio of 20:80 (v/v), respectively. The detection was performed at 350nm. As an internal standard (IS), tetracycline was used. The proposed method involves the extraction of doxycycline from seminal fluid based on acidic precipitation of the proteins using perchloric acid. The method showed good intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<7.0%), good accuracy (recovery for doxycycline>80%), and high correlation coefficient (r=0.998) for standards subjected to the entire procedure. The detection and quantification limits were 0.087μg/ml and 0.264μg/ml. The developed method was used to analyze doxycycline in the seminal fluids obtained from male subjects who were treated with doxycycline-hyclate. The mean doxycycline concentrations of 0.89±0.07μg/ml and 0.45±0.26μg/ml were detected in seminal fluid after 6h and 12h, respectively. This is the first study reporting extraction and HPLC determination of doxycycline in this complex sample and can be very useful in support of clinical and pharmacokinetic studies on this antibiotic.Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2013; 939C:17-22. · 2.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen testing for prostate cancer, and the possibility that certain behavioral factors are systematically related to the likelihood of undergoing screening examinations. In addition, several genes may modify the study results, but data concerning specific gene-environment interactions are currently sparse. Despite large improvements in our understanding of prostate cancer risk factors in the past two decades, present knowledge does not allow definitive recommendations for specific preventative behavioral interventions.Clinical Epidemiology 01/2012; 4:1-11.