Drugs in semen.
ABSTRACT Over the past 50 years, a decline in the quality of semen has been observed, possibly resulting in a reduction in male fertility. Among the factors affecting semen quality, exposure to drugs is of particular importance. It is known that drugs can be transported to the seminal plasma, which is made up of secretions from the various accessory genital glands. There is evidence that many drugs enter the male genitourinary tract by an ion-trapping process. Lipid solubility and the degree of ionisation of the drug, which depend on the pH of plasma and seminal fluid, are important factors in this process. To date, few studies have been conducted on this topic. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of the fluids of the male accessory gland have been performed in the case of chloroquine and caffeine only, while the effects of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid), sulfasalazine, salicylate, propranolol, diltiazem, flunarizine, verapamil, caffeine and nicotine on sperm physiology and morphology have been examined. Although data from the literature are scarce and incomplete, it is evident that many drugs can be excreted into semen. These drugs may interfere with the most common semen characteristics, potentially resulting in a male-mediated teratogenic effect, or local and systemic responses in female recipients. Therefore, it may be advisable to include, in the processes of drug development, pharmacokinetic evaluation of a drug in the semen and analysis of standard microscopic parameters of the semen. This is particularly important for drugs known to concentrate in the semen.
- SourceAvailable from: David E Coutant[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies were conducted in New Zealand White rabbits to assess the seminal transfer, vaginal absorption, and placental transfer of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (T-IgG4). T-IgG4 was administered by intravenous injection (IV) in males and by IV and intravaginal routes in females. Low levels of T-IgG4 were excreted into seminal plasma (100- to 370-fold lower than serum concentrations) and absorbed following vaginal dosing (3 orders of magnitude lower than IV administration). On gestation day 29 (GD29), fetal serum T-IgG4 levels were 1.5-fold greater than maternal levels following IV dosing. The fetal T-IgG4 exposure ratio for seminal transfer vs. direct maternal IV dosing was estimated to be 1.3*10−8. Applying human serum T-IgG4 exposure data to the model, the estimated human T-IgG4 serum concentration from seminal transfer was 3.07*10−7 μg/mL, an exposure level at least 1000-fold lower than the T-IgG4-ligand dissociation constant (Kd) and at least 7 orders of magnitude lower than the in vivo concentration producing 20% inhibition of the target (EC20). These data indicate that excretion of a T-IgG4 into semen would not result in a biologically meaningful exposure risk to the conceptus of an untreated partner.Reproductive Toxicology 09/2014; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.07.024 · 2.77 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antiretroviral therapy has reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1/AIDS in developed countries. Viral replication in blood plasma is suppressed by antiretroviral drugs, whereas virus in the male genital tract is genetically and phenotypically unique and may not be suppressed. This viral compartmentalization affects antiretroviral drug penetration of the male genital tract and capacity for antiretroviral therapy to reduce sexual transmission. The problem of having two distinct viral populations within any given individual is compounded by the fact that antiretroviral drugs penetrate semen to varying degrees. Incomplete suppression of genital tract virus may yield drug-resistant virus and increase the risk of sexual transmission. This review critically appraises current studies of antiretroviral drug quantification in semen and suggests recommendations to address observed limitations.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 12/2007; 59(11):1451-62. DOI:10.1211/jpp.59.11.0001 · 2.16 Impact Factor
Article: The transport of chemicals in semen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Three mechanisms have been proposed for exposure of the conceptus to chemicals in semen: access of chemicals to the maternal circulation after absorption from the vagina, direct chemical exposure of the conceptus following transport from the vagina to the uterine cavity, and delivery to the egg and subsequent conceptus of chemical bound to the sperm cell. We review published data for each of these three mechanisms. Human seminal fluid chemical concentrations are typically similar to or lower than blood concentrations, although some antimicrobial agents achieve higher concentrations in semen than in blood. Vaginal absorption of medications has been shown to occur, although the vehicles in which these medications are delivered to the vagina may maintain contact with the vaginal epithelium to a greater extent than does semen. Assuming total absorption of a seminal dose of a chemical with a high semen:blood concentration ratio, distribution within the recipient woman would result in a blood concentration at least three orders of magnitude lower than that in the man. Direct delivery of seminal chemicals into the uterine cavity of humans has not been shown to occur, although it may occur in species such as the rat in which seminal fluid has access to the uterine cavity. Chemicals in or on human sperm cells have been demonstrated with respect to tetracycline and cocaine in vitro and aluminum, lead, and cadmium in vivo. The in vitro cocaine study offers sufficiently quantitative data with which to predict that oocyte concentrations would be five orders of magnitude lower than blood concentrations associated with cocaine abuse, assuming a maximally cocaine-bound sperm were capable of fertilizing. Thus, even using liberal assumptions about transmission of chemicals in semen or sperm, predicted exposure levels of a pregnant woman or of the conceptus are three or more orders of magnitude lower than blood concentrations in the man whose semen is the putative vehicle for chemical transport.Birth Defects Research Part B Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 04/2005; 74(2):119-31. DOI:10.1002/bdrb.20031 · 1.17 Impact Factor