DNA organization in human spermatozoa.
ABSTRACT Previous studies from this laboratory on hamster spermatozoa have demonstrated that rodent sperm DNA is packaged into the sperm nucleus in a specific manner by nuclear structures. The entire genome is organized into DNA loop domains attached at their bases to a sperm nuclear matrix, the skeletal structure of the nucleus. When nuclei are completely decondensed, the nuclear matrix dissipates, and the entire genome remains anchored to a single structure located at the base of the tail, termed the nuclear annulus. Here, we have extended these studies to human sperm nuclei, which were found to be similar to hamster. Human sperm DNA was found to be organized into loop domains attached at their bases to a nuclear matrix. The average size of the human sperm halo of DNA surrounding the extracted sperm nucleus (made up of DNA loop domains) was about 50% smaller than those that have been reported for somatic cells (this corresponds to an approximate loop domain size of 26.8 +/- 2.1 kb). Human sperm DNA also remained anchored to the base of the tail when completely decondensed, indicating the existence of a nuclear annulus-like structure in human spermatozoa; but, unlike the hamster nuclear annulus, the human annulus could not be isolated because of its structural instability when separated from the tail. Using human centromere repeats as a probe for in situ hybridization, we examined the packaging of individual DNA sequences within the sperm nucleus. These studies demonstrate that human sperm DNA is highly organized by nuclear structures.
- SourceAvailable from: James P Vaughn[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that DNA in eukaryotic cells is synthesized via replication complexes that are fixed to a proteinaceous nuclear matrix. This model has not been universally accepted because the matrix and its associated DNA are usually prepared under hypertonic conditions that could facilitate non-specific aggregation of macromolecules. We therefore investigated whether different ionic conditions can significantly affect the association of nascent DNA with the nuclear matrix in cultured mammalian cells. Matrices were prepared either by a high salt method or by hypotonic or isotonic LIS extraction. Chromosomal DNA was subsequently removed by digestion with either DNAse I or EcoRI. With all methods of preparation, we found that newly synthesized DNA preferentially partitioned with the nuclear matrix. Furthermore, when the matrix-attached DNA fraction was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we found that it was markedly enriched for replication forks. We therefore conclude that attachment of DNA to the matrix in the vicinity of replication forks is not induced by conditions of high ionic strength, and that replication may, indeed, occur on or near the skeletal framework provided by the nuclear matrix. From a practical standpoint, our findings suggest a strategy for greatly increasing the sensitivity of two important new gel electrophoretic methods for the direct mapping of replication fork movement through defined chromosomal domains in mammalian cells.Nucleic Acids Research 05/1990; 18(8):1965-9. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the chicken oviduct, it has been well documented that steroid hormones stimulate the transcription of specific genes such as the ovalbumin gene. In addition to the presence of specific hormone receptors in the tissue, gene expression seems to require that target genes exist in large DNase I sensitive chromosomal domains. This structure appears necessary but not sufficient for transcriptional activation. In search of still other levels of control, we have investigated the interactions of genes with the nuclear matrix, a structure which has been implicated in DNA synthesis, transcription and RNA processing. Here we have isolated nuclear matrix and used a nondegradative method to fractionate nuclear DNA based on its preferential association with the matrix. The preparation was digested with a restriction enzyme and both matrix-bound and released DNAs were recovered. We found that only actively expressed genes were associated with the matrix. Furthermore, within a 100-kilobase (kb) DNase I sensitive chromosomal domain, only the transcribed regions were associated with the matrix. This association was shown to be reversible when hormone was withdrawn. Our results suggest that the nuclear matrix is the site of nuclear transcription and may represent another potential level of control for regulation of gene expression in the eukaryotic cell.Nature 01/1983; 306(5943):607-9. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied the role of the nuclear matrix (the skeletal framework of the nucleus) in DNA replication both in vivo and in a cell culture system. When regenerating rat liver or exponentially growing 3T3 fibroblasts are pulse-labeled with 3H-thymidine and nuclear matrix is subsequently isolated, the fraction of DNA remaining tightly attached to the matrix is highly enriched in newly synthesized DNA. After a 30 sec pulse labeling period and limited DNAase I digestion, the matrix DNA of 3T3 fibroblasts, which constitutes 15% of the total DNA, contains approximately 90% of the labeled newly synthesized DNA. Over 80% of this label can be chased out of the matrix DNA if the pulse is followed by a 45 min incubation with excess unlabeled thymidine. These and other kinetic studies suggest that the growing point of DNA replication is attached to the nuclear matrix. Studies measuring the size distribution of the matrix DNA also support this conclusion. Reconstitution controls and autoradiographic studies indicate that these results are not due to preferential, nonspecific binding of nascent DNA to the matrix during the extraction procedures. Electron microscopic autoradiography shows that, as with intact nuclei, sites of DNA replication are distributed throughout the nuclear matrix. A fixed site of DNA synthesis is proposed in which DNA replication complexes are anchored to the nuclear matrix and the DNA is reeled through these complexes as it is replicated.Cell 03/1980; 19(2):527-36. · 31.96 Impact Factor