Subjective fatigue of C-141 aircrews during Operation Desert Storm.
ABSTRACT Airlift crews were exposed to extended work periods, reduced sleep periods, night work, and circadian dysrhythmia caused by shift work and time-zone crossings during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. This research reveals the extent to which severe subjective fatigue was experienced by the crews during Operation Desert Storm. In addition, through the evaluation of long-term and short-term work and sleep histories, this research shows that recent sleep and flight histories are correlated with high fatigue levels. Furthermore, we found a tendency for fatigue to correspond with pilot error. We recommend that the training of personnel involved in long-duration operations include fatigue management strategies and, further, that work policies and environments be designed to take into account the importance of regular and restorative sleep when unusual duty hours are required.
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ABSTRACT: Fatigue has been identified as an important operational problem in both military and civilian aviation. Requirements for extended duty periods, inconsistent work/rest schedules, multiple-time-zone operations, and night flights combine to potentially degrade performance and alertness in the cockpit. Duty-time limitations traditionally have been relied upon to manage aircrew fatigue; but problems persist as evidenced by the fact that significant fatigue-related mishaps continue to occur. Because of this, it is worthwhile to consider the limited use of alternative strategies such as stimulants. The data from five placebo-controlled studies (four with dextroamphetamine and one with modafinil) were combined to examine the overall efficacy of stimulants for preserving flight performance, physiological alertness, and subjective vigilance in sleep-deprived pilots. Statistically-significant (p
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ABSTRACT: The effects of 34 hr of continuous wakefulness on flight performance, instrument scanning, subjective fatigue, and EEG activity were measured. Ten fixed-wing military pilots flew a series of 10 simulator profiles, and root mean squared error was calculated for various flight parameters. Ocular scan patterns were obtained by magnetic head tracking and infrared eye tracking. Flying errors peaked after about 24 to 28 hr of continuous wakefulness in line with peaks in subjective fatigue and EEG theta activity, and they were not directly attributable to degradation of instrument scanning, which was very consistent across pilots and largely unaffected by the sleep deprivation.International Journal of Aviation Psychology 10/2009; 19(4):326-346. DOI:10.1080/10508410903187562 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite knowledge gained through decades of research, fatigue due to insuffi cient sleep remains an ingrained part of military and commercial aviation and represents a major threat to the health, safety, and effectiveness of aircrew. Long duty periods, high workloads, circadian disruptions, and insuffi cient recovery time between fl ights ensure sleepiness is a continued problem for both civilian and military aircrew. The majority of our knowledge concerning the effects of fatigue is gained from acute, total sleep deprivation laboratory-based studies which describe results in terms of the average indi-vidual's response to total sleep loss. However, in operational environments, limited sleep over many days, termed chronic sleep restriction, is more commonly experienced than acute, total sleep deprivation, casting some doubt on the opera-tional applicability of many previous studies. Furthermore, recent studies have identifi ed strong individual differences in fatigue resistance. Our understanding of the effects of chronic sleep restriction and the individual differences in response to fatigue is currently limited in comparison to that of acute sleep deprivation. In this review, we identify the substantial progress made over the last 2 decades in closing these gaps. Advances in understanding the effects of chronic sleep re-striction, the recovery timeline associated with sleep loss, and individual responses to sleep loss represent a critical step in the improvement of current, and the formulation of future, countermeasures in the aviation environment. Adjustments to duty rotation and crew scheduling, refi nement of biomathematical models of fatigue, and application of currently avail-able countermeasures are the most immediate of these improvements.