Subjective fatigue of C-141 aircrews during Operation Desert Storm.
ABSTRACT Airlift crews were exposed to extended work periods, reduced sleep periods, night work, and circadian dysrhythmia caused by shift work and time-zone crossings during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. This research reveals the extent to which severe subjective fatigue was experienced by the crews during Operation Desert Storm. In addition, through the evaluation of long-term and short-term work and sleep histories, this research shows that recent sleep and flight histories are correlated with high fatigue levels. Furthermore, we found a tendency for fatigue to correspond with pilot error. We recommend that the training of personnel involved in long-duration operations include fatigue management strategies and, further, that work policies and environments be designed to take into account the importance of regular and restorative sleep when unusual duty hours are required.
Article: Jet lag and sleepiness in aircrew.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Jet-lag and day-time sleepiness cannot be avoided in transmeridian operations, because work hours of aircrews interfere with the circadian system through irregular work-rest schedules and rapid time-zone transitions. Although the primary cause of accidents is usually the human factor, jet lag and sleepiness have seldom been officially identified as causes of inadequate functioning in the cockpit. However, research clearly indicates that flights at night and/or across time zones will impair performance and reduce safety. Research on countermeasures have focused on on-board napping, crew augmentation, behavioural strategies against jet-lag, light treatment and melatonin administration. Regrettably, scientific knowledge has been successfully transmitted to only a very few national authorities responsible for work hours of aircrews.Journal of Sleep Research 12/1995; 4(S2):30-36. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modafinil is an alerting substance that is considered safer than amphetamine with fewer side effects. Although modafinil has been used successfully to treat narcolepsy, relatively little is known about its ability to ameliorate fatigue and declines in mental performance due to sleep deprivation (SD) in a normal population. Forty-one military subjects received either 300 mg of modafinil, 20 mg of d-amphetamine, or placebo on 3 separate occasions during 64 hours of continuous cognitive work and sleep loss. Three drug treatments were given: at 23.30 hours and 05.30 hours during the first and second SD nights, respectively, and once at 15.30 hours during the third day of continuous work. Subjective estimates of mood, fatigue and sleepiness, as well as objective measures of reaction time, logical reasoning and short-term memory clearly showed better performance with both modafinil and amphetamine relative to placebo. Both modafinil and amphetamine maintained or increased body temperature compared to the natural circadian cycle observed in the placebo group. Also, from subject debriefs at the end of the study, modafinil elicited fewer side-effects than amphetamine, although more than the placebo group. Modafinil appears to be a good alternative to amphetamine for counteracting the debilitating mood and cognitive effects of sleep loss during sustained operations.Journal of Sleep Research 12/1995; 4(4):212-228. · 3.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Under the new Expeditionary Aerospace Force (EAF) concept, the US Air Force is capable of deploying and employing in 72 hours or less. Furthermore, the US mission frequently requires 24-hour activities to meet operational demands. Because of its commitment to project power with such a rapid fighting force, aviators on contingency operations will regularly face fatigue-related challenges inherent in sustained and continuous operations, as well as those from rapid, transmeridian travel. The purpose of this research paper is to extract all relevant materials pertaining to fatigue and aircrews in order to provide a plan for equipping Aerospace Expeditionary Forces (AEF) commanders and personnel with a historical per perspective, critical information, and new technologies to enable effective fatigue management. This information was attained via an extensive literature search and review, primarily utilizing the Internet and the Air University Library. Existing comprehensive scientific literature provides important physiological information about aviators that can be used to guide operations and policy. Many alertness management strategies aid aircrews and deployed personnel as well as help them to cope with the challenges of sleep loss and circadian disruption. Both pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical countermeasures are presented. Although valuable, the challenge is for the scientific information to make its way down from the books to the cockpit and be incorporated into flight/duty/rest regulatory considerations. Additionally, new means to combat fatigue can give AEF commanders insight into future benefits of fatigue research. Commanders, safety officers, and aviators are well advised to familiarize them selves with the causes of impaired alertness and countermeasures that can keep chronic fatigue from becoming a problem.03/2001;