Subjective fatigue of C-141 aircrews during Operation Desert Storm.
ABSTRACT Airlift crews were exposed to extended work periods, reduced sleep periods, night work, and circadian dysrhythmia caused by shift work and time-zone crossings during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. This research reveals the extent to which severe subjective fatigue was experienced by the crews during Operation Desert Storm. In addition, through the evaluation of long-term and short-term work and sleep histories, this research shows that recent sleep and flight histories are correlated with high fatigue levels. Furthermore, we found a tendency for fatigue to correspond with pilot error. We recommend that the training of personnel involved in long-duration operations include fatigue management strategies and, further, that work policies and environments be designed to take into account the importance of regular and restorative sleep when unusual duty hours are required.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Driver fatigue is associated with risks of road accidents that result in injury and death. Research has been limited by several issues such as confusion over definitions, how best to measure fatigue, and the contribution of psychological factors to fatigue. This study addressed these limitations by investigating the relationship between psychological factors and fatigue. Participants were assessed and were required to perform a monotonous task till they tired. Results found few psychological factors to be related to physiological and performance decrement fatigue outcome measures. However, psychological factors were found to correlate consistently with self-reported fatigue. The results suggest that fatigue is associated with a predisposition to be anxious, depressive, less self-assured, more conscientious (rule bound), less socially bold, less adaptable and low vigour. The results indicate that future research should employ a range of fatigue outcome measures in order to best understand what factors contribute to fatigue.Biological Psychology 05/2006; 72(1):78-87. · 3.40 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily- relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 08/2005; 76(7 Suppl):C2-3. · 0.78 Impact Factor
Article: Fatigue countermeasures in aviation.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pilot fatigue is a significant problem in modern aviation operations, largely because of the unpredictable work hours, long duty periods, circadian disruptions, and insufficient sleep that are commonplace in both civilian and military flight operations. The full impact of fatigue is often underappreciated, but many of its deleterious effects have long been known. Compared to people who are well-rested, people who are sleep deprived think and move more slowly, make more mistakes, and have memory difficulties. These negative effects may and do lead to aviation errors and accidents. In the 1930s, flight time limitations, suggested layover durations, and aircrew sleep recommendations were developed in an attempt to mitigate aircrew fatigue. Unfortunately, there have been few changes to aircrew scheduling provisions and flight time limitations since the time they were first introduced, despite evidence that updates are needed. Although the scientific understanding of fatigue, sleep, shift work, and circadian physiology has advanced significantly over the past several decades, current regulations and industry practices have in large part failed to adequately incorporate the new knowledge. Thus, the problem of pilot fatigue has steadily increased along with fatigue-related concerns over air safety. Accident statistics, reports from pilots themselves, and operational flight studies all show that fatigue is a growing concern within aviation operations. This position paper reviews the relevant scientific literature, summarizes applicable U.S. civilian and military flight regulations, evaluates various in-flight and pre-/postflight fatigue countermeasures, and describes emerging technologies for detecting and countering fatigue. Following the discussion of each major issue, position statements address ways to deal with fatigue in specific contexts with the goal of using current scientific knowledge to update policy and provide tools and techniques for improving air safety.Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine 02/2009; 80(1):29-59. · 0.78 Impact Factor