Protection studies with integral membrane fractions of Haemonchus contortus.
ABSTRACT Techniques for targetting glycoproteins integral to the luminal membrane of the intestinal cells of Haemonchus contortus were used to isolate fractions of whole parasites with protective antigen potential. Sheep immunization trials with various candidate fractions revealed one which selectively bound to lectins with specificity for N-acetylgalactosamine and which reduced mean challenge worm burdens by up to 72% and mean faecal egg counts by up to 93%. The luminal surface of the intestines of the Haemonchus recovered from sheep immunized with this antigen were coated with host immunoglobulin, suggesting that the protective effect was due to antibodies interfering with the function of the gut. Further biochemical characterization of this fraction, which has been termed Haemonchus galactose-containing glycoprotein complex (H-gal-GP complex), showed that it could be distinguished from previously described protective antigens of this parasite and that it was only detectable in detergent extracts of the worms.
Article: Molecular cloning and characterisation of a putative aspartate proteinase associated with a gut membrane protein complex from adult Haemonchus contortus[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A cDNA was isolated from an adult Haemonchus contortus cDNA expression library the deduced amino acid sequence of which showed significant homology to mammalian pepsinogen sequences. The library was screened with antisera raised against Haemonchus galactose-containing glycoprotein complex, a gut membrane protein complex with aspartyl proteinase activity which has shown considerable potential as a protective antigen. The amino acid sequence obtained corresponded very closely in part to the N-terminal amino acid sequences of two polypetides within the complex. The enzyme was shown to be almost exclusively expressed by the blood-feeding parasite stages. The cDNA was expressed in E. coli, and antibody produced to the recombinant protein bound to the luminal surface of the gut in the adult parasite. The proteinase may play a central role in digesting the blood meal and is considered a potential sub-unit vaccine candidate.Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 10/1997; · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The treatment and prevention of parasitism in both humans and livestock continues to rely almost exclusively on the use of antiparasitic drugs - an approach which has limitations, particularly as reinfection, which occurs rapidly in endemic regions, is not prevented. In addition, the widespread appearance of drug-resistant parasites of animals (Kaplan, 2004;) together with emerging evidence of resistance problems in human parasites (Fallon et al. 1995; Ismail et al. 1996; De Clerq et al. 1997; East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment, 2003), emphasise the importance of developing alternative methods of control, with anti-parasite vaccines a prime target.Parasitology 02/2006; 133 Suppl:S1-8. · 2.96 Impact Factor
Article: Specificity and mechanism of immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and IgG-dependent protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protective immunity in mice to the infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Strongyloides stercoralis was shown to be dependent on immunoglobulin M (IgM), complement activation, and granulocytes. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether IgG was also a protective antibody isotype and to define the specificity and the mechanism by which IgG functions. Purified IgG recovered from mice 3 weeks after a booster immunization with live L3 was shown to transfer high levels of protective immunity to naïve mice. IgG transferred into mice treated to block complement activation or to eliminate granulocytes failed to kill the challenge larvae. Transfer of immune IgG into IL-5 knockout (KO) mice, which are deficient in eosinophils, resulted in larval attrition, while transfer into FcRgamma KO mice did not result in larval killing. These findings suggest that IgG from mice immunized with live L3 requires complement activation and neutrophils for killing of L3 through an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism. This is in contrast to the results of investigations using IgM from mice immunized with live L3 and IgG from mice immunized with larval antigens soluble in deoxycholate in which protective immunity was shown to be ADCC independent. Western blot analyses with immune IgM and IgG identified few antigens recognized by all protective antibody isotypes. Results from immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that the protective antibodies bound to different regions in the L3. It was therefore concluded that while IgM and IgG antibodies are both protective against larval S. stercoralis, they recognize different antigens and utilize different killing mechanisms.Infection and Immunity 01/2004; 71(12):6835-43. · 4.16 Impact Factor