Quantitative trait loci mapping of three loci controlling morphine preference using inbred mouse strains.
ABSTRACT Quantitative trait loci mapping was used to identify the chromosomal location of genes which contribute to oral morphine preference (in a two-bottle choice paradigm) of C57BL/6J mice, compared to DBA/2J mice. An F2 intercross of these two strains (606 mice) was phenotyped for morphine preference and those mice demonstrating extreme values for morphine consumption (the highest and lowest 7.7%) were genotyped for 157 murine microsatellite polymorphisms. Maximum likelihood methods revealed three loci on murine chromosomes 1, 6 and 10 which are responsible for nearly 85% of the genetic variance observed between the two parental strains.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have indicated that voluntary exercise decreases the severity of the anxiogenic-like behaviors in both morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. This study examined the effects of regular swimming exercise during the development of dependency and spontaneous morphine withdrawal on the anxiety-depression profile and voluntary morphine consumption in morphine dependent rats. The rats were chronically treated with bi-daily doses (10mg/kg, at 12h intervals) of morphine over a period of 14 days. The exercising rats were allowed to swim (45min/d, five days per a week, for 14 or 21 days) during the development of morphine dependence and withdrawal. Then, rats were tested for the severity of morphine dependence, the elevated plus-maze (EPM), sucrose preference test (SPT) and voluntary morphine consumption using a two-bottle choice paradigm in animal models of craving. The results showed that withdrawal signs were decreased in swimmer morphine dependent rats than sedentary rats (P<0.05). Also, the swimmer morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats exhibited an increase in EPM open arm time and entries (P<0.05), higher levels of sucrose preference (P<0.001) than sedentary rats. Voluntary consumption of oral morphine was less in the swimmer morphine-withdrawn rats than the sedentary groups during 4 periods of the intake of drug (P<0.01). We conclude that regular swimming exercise reduces the severity of morphine dependence and voluntary morphine consumption with reducing anxiety and depression in morphine-dependent and withdrawn rats. Thus, swimming exercise may be a potential method to ameliorate some of the deleterious behavioural consequences of morphine dependence. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2014.11.042 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Some common genetic factors appear to influence risk for drug dependence across multiple drugs of abuse. In previous research, mice that were selectively bred for higher amounts of methamphetamine consumption, using a two-bottle choice methamphetamine drinking procedure, were found to be less sensitive to the locomotor stimulant effects of morphine and the more μ-opioid receptor selective agonist fentanyl, compared to mice that were bred for low methamphetamine consumption. This suggested that μ-opioid receptor mediated pathways may influence genetic risk for methamphetamine consumption. We hypothesized that these differences in opioid sensitivity would impact opioid intake in the methamphetamine drinking lines and that drugs with μ-opioid receptor activity would impact methamphetamine intake. Consumption of morphine was examined in 2, two-bottle choice studies, one that compared morphine to quinine consumption and another that used a saccharin fading procedure. Next, naltrexone (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg), a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, and buprenorphine (0, 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg), a μ-opioid receptor partial agonist, were each examined for their effects on the acquisition of methamphetamine consumption. Low methamphetamine drinking mice consumed more morphine compared to high methamphetamine drinking mice. Naltrexone did not alter methamphetamine consumption in either selected line; however, buprenorphine reduced methamphetamine intake in the high methamphetamine drinking line. These data show that greater sensitivity to opioids is associated with greater opioid intake and indicate a need for investigation of drugs with μ-opioid receptor-specific agonist activity in genetically-determined differences in methamphetamine consumption.Genes Brain and Behavior 10/2013; DOI:10.1111/gbb.12100 · 3.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Compared to DBA/2J (D2), C57BL/6J (B6) inbred mice exhibit strong morphine preference when tested using a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm. A morphine preference quantitative trait locus (QTL), Mop2, was originally mapped to proximal chromosome 10 using a B6xD2 F2 intercross population, confirmed with reciprocal congenic strains and fine mapped with recombinant congenic strains. These efforts identified a ∼10 Mbp interval, underlying Mop2, containing 35 genes. To further reduce the interval, mice from the D2.B6-Mop2-P1 congenic strain were backcrossed to parental D2 mice and two new recombinant strains of interest were generated: D2.B6-Mop2-P1.pD.dB and D2.B6-Mop2-P1.pD.dD. Results obtained from testing these strains in the two-bottle choice drinking paradigm suggest that the gene(s) responsible for the Mop2 QTL is one or more of 22 remaining within the newly defined interval (∼7.6 Mbp) which includes Oprm1 and several other genes related to opioid pharmacology. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis of Oprm1 and opioid-related genes Rgs17, Ppp1r14c, Vip, and Iyd revealed both between-strain and within-strain expression differences in comparisons of saline- and morphine-treated B6 and D2 mice. Analysis of Rgs17 protein levels also revealed both between-strain and within-strain differences in comparisons of saline- and morphine-treated B6 and D2 mice. Results suggest that the Mop2 QTL represents the combined influence of multiple genetic variants on morphine preference in these two strains. Relative contributions of each variant remain to be determined.Neuroscience 07/2014; 277. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.07.020 · 3.33 Impact Factor