The cross national epidemiology of obsessive compulsive disorder. The Cross National Collaborative Group.
ABSTRACT Data on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders from different parts of the world using similar methods and diagnostic criteria have previously not been available. This article presents data on lifetime and annual prevalence rates, age at onset, symptom profiles, and comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), using DSM-III criteria, from community surveys in seven countries: the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Germany, Taiwan, Korea, and New Zealand. The OCD annual prevalence rates are remarkably consistent among these countries, ranging from 1.1/100 in Korea and New Zealand to 1.8/100 in Puerto Rico. The only exception is Taiwan (0.4/100), which has the lowest prevalence rates for all psychiatric disorders. The data for age at onset and comorbidity with major depression and the other anxiety disorders are also consistent among countries, but the predominance of obsessions or compulsions varies. These findings suggest the robustness of OCD as a disorder in diverse parts of the world.
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ABSTRACT: Patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), despite heightened levels of functional impairment and disability, often wait several years before starting pharmacological treatment. The interval between the onset of a specific psychiatric disorder and administration of the first pharmacological treatment has been conceptualized as the duration of untreated illness (DUI). The DUI has been increasingly investigated as a predictor of long-term outcomes for OCD and other anxiety disorders. The present study investigated DUI, and demographic-clinical factors associated with DUI, among a sample of patients with OCD. The relationships between DUI, insight, and treatment outcomes were also assessed.Comprehensive Psychiatry 04/2015; 58:88-93. DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.12.019 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cognitive-behavioural models have linked unacceptable or repugnant thoughts in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with vulnerable self-themes and fear-of-self concerns. To investigate this notion, Aardema and coworkers recently developed and validated the Fear of Self-Questionnaire (FSQ) in non-clinical samples, finding it had strong internal inconsistency, and good divergent and convergent validity, including strong relationships to obsessional symptoms and with other processes implicated in cognitive models of OCD (e.g., obsessive beliefs and inferential confusion). The current article describes two studies that aim to replicate and extend these findings in clinical OCD and non-clinical samples. Study 1 investigated the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the FSQ in a non-clinical sample (n = 405). Results of confirmatory factor analysis supported the unidimensionality of the scale; the FSQ also showed very good internal consistency and temporal stability. Study 2 investigated the role of fear of self in OCD symptoms, and unacceptable thoughts and repugnant obsessions in particular, using a clinical OCD sample (n = 76). As expected, fear of self was a unique, major predictor of unacceptable thoughts independent of negative mood states and obsessive beliefs. Moreover, even when considered with obsessive beliefs, anxiety and depression, the feared self was the only unique predictor of obsessionality, providing support for the notion that self-themes could explain why some intrusions convert into obsessions, whereas others do not. Implications for current cognitive-behavioural models are discussed.Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/cpp.1950 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individuals with obsessive compulsive disorder can display diverse and heterogeneous patterns of symptoms. Little is known about the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions and normal personality traits, particularly those that increase risk for other internalizing disorders. In this study of 1,382 individuals from female–female twin pairs, we examined the relationship between self-report OCS dimensions derived from the Padua Inventory and Eysenck's personality traits neuroticism and extraversion. We conducted factor analysis to determine their phenotypic structure followed by twin analyses to determine their genetic and environmental sources of covariation. A three-factor solution, with dimensions corresponding to checking, aggressive obsessions, and contamination, was the best fit for the Padua OCS items. These dimensions were significantly and somewhat variably associated with neuroticism but negligibly associated with extraversion. The genetic correlations between neuroticism and these three OCS dimensions were moderate to high (0.66 with checking, 0.89 with aggressive obsessions, and 0.40 with contamination). However, the estimated genetic correlation between neuroticism and a unified latent OCS construct was smaller (0.32). Overall this study suggests that genetic, and to a smaller extent environmental, factors underlying neuroticism may act differentially as risk factors for OCS dimensions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 12/2014; 165(8). DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32269 · 3.27 Impact Factor