Schizophrenia and prenatal exposure to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic in Croatia
The authors present data from the Republic of Croatia on schizophrenia rates in a birth cohort prenatally exposed to the 1957 A2 influenza epidemic and in comparison (unexposed) birth cohorts. The rate of schizophrenia did not differ significantly between the exposed and unexposed cohorts.
Available from: Raymond R. Goetz
- "Since then, a host of ecologic studies attempting to replicate this initial finding have been conducted throughout Europe and in the United States, Japan, and Australia. Positive associations between exposure to the 1957 epidemic and births of preschizophrenia subjects were reported in Great Britain (O'Callaghan et al. 1991; Adams et al. 1993; Fahy et al. 1993; Takei et al. 1993), Ireland (Cannon et al. 1996), Japan (Kunugi et al. 1995), and Australia (McGrath et al. 1994). All but one of those studies showed second trimester specificity for the association. "
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ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to adult respiratory infections and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in the Prenatal Determinants of Schizophrenia (PDS) Study, a large birth cohort investigation. Previous work suggests that second trimester exposure to respiratory infection may be a risk factor for SSD. We therefore examined whether this class of infection was associated with adult SSD. For this purpose, we capitalized on several design advantages of the PDS Study, including a comprehensive, prospective data base on physician-diagnosed infections and a continuous followup in which diagnoses of SSD were made, in the majority, by face-to-face interview. Second trimester exposure to respiratory infections was associated with a significantly increased risk of SSD, adjusting for maternal smoking, education, and race (rate ratio [RR] = 2.13 [1.05-4.35], chi2 = 4.36, df= 1,p = 0.04); no associations were shown for first trimester and third trimester exposure to these respiratory infections. These findings support-and extend-previous studies suggesting that second trimester respiratory infections are risk factors for SSD. This study therefore has implications toward uncovering the etiology of schizophrenia and developing preventive strategies.
Schizophrenia Bulletin 02/2000; 26(2):287-95. DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.schbul.a033453 · 8.45 Impact Factor
Available from: folkhalsoguiden.se
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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ABSTRACT: The conceptualization and operationalization of measures of health status are considered. Health indicators are conceived as a subset of social indicators, and therefore, as any social indicator, they are viewed as derivative from social issues. The interrelationships of different frames of reference for defining and measuring health that have accompained three distinct health problem patterns in the United States are viewed from a developmental perspective. Mortality and morbidity rates, the traditional health indicators, by themselves no longer serve to assess health status in developed nations. Their deficiencies as indicators serve as background for a classification schema for sociomedical health status indicators that relates health definition frames of reference, measures of health status, and health problems. The role of a group of health indicators-sociomedical heath indicators-in the current formulation of health status measures is assessed.
International Journal of Health Services 02/1976; 6(3):521-38. DOI:10.2190/MY7U-4BGM-9QFY-N0TN · 0.88 Impact Factor
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