CD4 lymphocytopenia among injecting drug users in New York City.
ABSTRACT Recent cases of "AIDS-like" CD4 lymphocytopenia in the absence of HIV infection have generated considerable scientific and public interest. We studied CD4 cell counts and percentages from 1984 to 1992 among 1,246 HIV-seronegative injecting drug users in New York City, a population at very high risk for exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Severe CD4 lymphocytopenia was rare, and there was no evidence of an increase over time. Of 229 subjects with longitudinal data, only four met the surveillance definition for "idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia" (ICL). CD4 cell counts of < 500 cells/microliters were, however, associated with subsequent HIV seroconversion (12.7/100 person-years at risk, relative risk (RR) = 4.53, 95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI) 1.7-10.7, p = 0.002).
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Article: THE HIV-AIDS QUESTION
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ABSTRACT: Summary The treatment and prevention of AIDS with antiretroviral medications is based on a singular set of well known beliefs: that AIDS is an infectious disease caused by a virulent virus called HIV; that HIV belongs to family of retroviruses; that AIDS can therefore be treated with antiretroviral drugs; that AIDS is a transmissible disease that is transmitted through body fluids including blood, genital secretions, and breast milk; that a positive result on the so-called "AIDS test" is indicative of infection with HIV; that once positive on the "AIDS test" the individual will develop AIDS; that a person who reacts positive on the "AIDS test" can prevent the development of AIDS by using several antiretroviral drugs; that the consumption of antiretroviral drugs will prevent the transmission of HIV from HIV positive pregnant women to their babies; that the use of antiretroviral drugs is safe and free of harmful effects; and that, therefore, it is rational to treat and to prevent AIDS with antiretroviral medications. However, not a single one of the above beliefs can be scientifically