Targeted activation of CD8 cells and infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice fail to confirm a primary protective role for CD8 cells in experimental leishmaniasis.
ABSTRACT CD8+ T cells play an important role in the immunologic control of intracellular pathogens, particularly viruses. Leishmania are obligate intracellular parasites of macrophages in the mammalian host, and previous studies using deletion of CD8+ cells by administration of mAb to infected animals have suggested a protective role for these cells. Two complementary approaches were used to define more carefully the role of CD8+ cells in leishmaniasis. In BALB/c mice susceptible to Leishmania major (L. major) infection, targeted activation of CD8+ T cells was attempted by immunization with nonapeptides derived from the conserved major outer surface protein of the organism, gp63, that contained the consensus binding motif for MHC class I H-2Kd molecules. Two of the nonapeptides induced CTL activity in subsequently infected BALB/c mice that could be elicited against P815 cells pulsed either with peptide or lysates of L. major. Purified CD8+ T cells from immunized mice had elevated levels of IFN-gamma mRNA transcripts as compared to unimmunized mice. Despite evidence for activation of CD8+ cells, none of the mice immunized with nine different peptides alone or in combination were protected from progressive disease. In a second series of experiments, beta 2-microglobulin deficient mice that lack CD8+ cells were infected with L. major and the course of infection monitored. These mice cured disease as rapidly as beta 2-m +/- and +/+ littermates, and cure was associated with comparable levels of IFN-gamma mRNA in the draining lymph node population. Neither of these approaches was able to confirm a substantive role for CD8+ T cells in the primary protective response to L. major.
- SourceAvailable from: Uwe Ritter[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Resistance to Leishmania major infection is dependent on the development of a cell-mediated Th1 immune response in resistant C57BL/6 mice whereas Th2-prone BALB/c mice develop non-healing lesions after infection. The chemokine receptor CCR6 is shared by anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and pro-inflammatory Th17 cells. In a recent study we showed that C57BL/6 mice deficient in CCR6 exhibited enhanced footpad swelling and impaired T helper cell migration indicated by reduced recruitment of total T helper cells into the skin after infection and a reduced delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. Based on these findings we tested whether the lack of CCR6 alters Treg or Th17 cell responses during the course of Leishmania major infection. When we analyzed T cell subsets in the lymph nodes of CCR6-deficient mice, Th17 cell numbers were not different. However, reduced numbers of Treg cells paralleled with a stronger IFNγ response. Furthermore, the early increase in IFNγ-producing cells correlated with increased local tissue inflammation at later time points. Our data indicate an important role of CCR6 for Treg cells and a redundant role for Th17 cells in a Th1 cell-driven anti-parasitic immune response against Leishmania major parasites in resistant C57BL/6 mice.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e44499. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although a great deal of knowledge has been gained from studies on the immunobiology of leishmaniasis, there is still no universally acceptable, safe, and effective vaccine against the disease. This strongly suggests that we still do not completely understand the factors that control and/or regulate the development and sustenance of anti-Leishmania immunity, particularly those associated with secondary (memory) immunity. Such an understanding is critically important for designing safe, effective, and universally acceptable vaccine against the disease. Here we review the literature on the correlate of protective anti-Leishmania immunity and vaccination strategies against leishmaniasis with a bias emphasis on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:128.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Host protection against several intracellular pathogens requires the induction of CD8(+) T cell responses. CD8(+) T cells are potent effector cells that can produce high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and kill infected target cells efficiently. However, a protective role for CD8(+) T cells during Leishmania infections is still controversial and largely depends on the infection model. In this review, we discuss the role of CD8(+) T cells during various types of Leishmania infections, following vaccination, and as potential immunotherapeutic targets.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:5.