Analysis of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Oncogenes (c-erbB-2, c-myc, and some genes linked to the 11q13 lesion), tumor suppressor genes (retinoblastoma gene, p53) and an antimetastatic gene (nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase) play important roles in breast cancer progression. Amplification of c-erbB-2, c-myc, and int-2, and expression of RB, p53(mutant), and NDP kinase were determined in 77 primary breast cancer specimens. nm23-H1 allelic loss was also studied. c-erbB-2 and c-myc amplification, loss of RB expression, p53(mutant) expression, and nm23-H1 allelic loss were also found in non-invasive carcinoma. int-2 amplification was significantly correlated with lymph node status (P = 0.02) and a significant association was found between p53(mutant) expression and tumor size (P = 0.04). c-erbB-2 amplification was strongly associated with disease-free and overall survival in multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). All of the c-erbB-2 amplified cases and all but one of the int-2 amplified cases in node-positive patients had relapsed within 2 years post resection. The cancer cells may acquire new proliferative pathways sequentially as a result of multiple genetic alterations which enable them to bypass the estrogen-dependent proliferation.
Article: Expression of nm23 in the spectrum of pre-invasive, invasive and metastatic breast lesions.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nm23 protein is a metastasis suppressor protein, expressed in all tissues. Reduced Nm23 expression is related to a high incidence of lymph node and distant metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with cancers. The present study was done to analyze the expression of Nm23 using immunohistochemistry in non-neoplastic and neoplastic breast lesions. Sections from 93 samples were studied and classified into non-proliferative breast lesion (13), fibroadenoma (7), proliferative breast lesion (13), carcinoma in situ (20), invasive carcinoma (23) and metastatic deposits in lymph nodes (17). Nm23 expression in these groups showed a progressive down regulation with increasing neoplastic transformation. On comparing the various groups, nm23 expression was significantly different between the various subgroups with greatest expression in non-proliferative lesions and least in metastatic deposits (p < 0.050). It is concluded that the modulation of nm23 in a spectrum of breast lesions can be indicative of metastatic phenotype and help to predict the aggressiveness of disease.Diagnostic Pathology 01/2008; 3:23. · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metastasis remains the most deadly aspect of cancer and still evades direct treatment. Clinically and experimentally, primary tumor development and metastasis are distinct processes-locally growing tumors can progress without the development of metastases. The discovery of endogenous molecules that exclusively inhibit metastasis suggests that metastasis is an amenable therapeutic target. By definition, metastasis suppressors inhibit metastasis without inhibiting tumorigenicity and are thus distinct from tumor suppressors. As the biology underlying functional mechanisms of metastasis suppressors becomes clearer, it is evident that metastasis suppressors could be harnessed as direct drug targets, prognostic markers, and to understand the fundamental biology of the metastatic process. Metastasis suppressors vary widely in their cellular localization: they are found in every cellular compartment and some are secreted. In general, metastasis suppressors appear to regulate selectively how cells respond to exogenous signals, by affecting signaling cascades which regulate downstream gene expression. This review briefly summarizes current functional and biochemical data on metastasis suppressors implicated in breast cancer. We also present a schematic integrating known mechanisms for these metastasis suppressors highlighting potential targets for therapeutic intervention.Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 10/2007; 12(2-3):175-90. · 6.74 Impact Factor
Article: Coexistence of HER2 over-expression and p53 protein accumulation is a strong prognostic molecular marker in breast cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many laboratories are currently evaluating the usefulness of determination of HER2, p53, and Ki67 proliferation indices using immunohistochemical techniques in cancer. Although the available studies suggest that these factors might indeed be helpful in making treatment decisions in cancer patients, their clinical usefulness is still controversial. Expression of HER2, p53, and Ki67 was examined by immunohistochemistry in samples of breast tissue from 506 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, obtained between 1981 and 1999 (median follow up period 82 months), and their significance for prognosis was analyzed. Of the 506 carcinoma tissue samples, 20.1%, 29.0%, and 53.6% were positive for HER2 over-expression, p53 protein accumulation, and Ki67 expression, respectively. Over-expression of HER2 significantly reduced disease free (P = 0.02) and overall survival (P = 0.005). Accumulation of p53 protein significantly decreased disease free (P = 0.01) and overall survival (P = 0.01). Patients with tumors that were positive for both HER2 and p53 relapsed and died within a significantly shorter period of time after surgery (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). In multivariate analysis, patients with both HER2 and p53 positive tumors had considerably decreased overall survival (P = 0.04), as did patients with larger tumor size and positive lymph node status. The findings of the present study indicate that the coexistence of HER2 over-expression and p53 protein accumulation is a strong prognostic molecular marker in breast cancer.Breast cancer research: BCR 01/2004; 6(1):R24-30. · 5.24 Impact Factor