Evaluation of cold-adapted, reassortant influenza B virus vaccines in elderly and chronically ill adults.
ABSTRACT The safety and immunogenicity of two recent cold-adapted reassortant influenza B viruses were evaluated in persons at high risk for influenza-related morbidity and mortality. Ambulatory adults > 65 years old or with chronic high-risk conditions were randomly assigned to receive parenteral trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine containing either influenza B/Ann Arbor/86 or B/Yamagata/88 hemagglutinin antigens, cold-adapted reassortant influenza B/Ann Arbor/1/86 or B/Yamagata/16/88 viruses (10(7.2) TCID50), or placebo in double-blind fashion. Cold-adapted vaccine viruses were well tolerated, with similar rates of respiratory symptoms in all groups. There were no changes in spirometry or oxygen saturation following vaccination. Immune responses to both types of vaccine were modest, with serum antibody responses occurring significantly more frequently and with higher magnitude in those receiving inactivated than in those receiving cold-adapted vaccine. Cold-adapted, reassortant influenza B vaccines are safe in the elderly and those with chronic illness but are not optimally immunogenic in this group.
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ABSTRACT: Influenza is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accumulation of genetic mutations termed antigenic drift, allows influenza viruses to inflict yearly epidemics that may result in 250,000 to 500,000 deaths annually. Over 90% of influenza-related deaths occur in the older adult population. This is at least in part a result of increasing dysregulation of the immune system with age, termed immunosenescence. This dysregulation results in reduced capacity to cope with infections and decreased responsiveness to vaccination. The older adult population is in dire need of improved vaccines capable of eliciting protective responses in the face of a waning immune system. This review focuses on the status of immunity, responses to influenza vaccination, and strategies that are currently being explored to elicit enhanced immune responses in this high risk population.02/2012; 3(1):68-90.
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ABSTRACT: In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions.AFTER AN INITIAL REVIEW OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS OF COPD LITERATURE, AND CONSULTATION WITH EXPERTS, MAS IDENTIFIED THE FOLLOWING TOPICS FOR ANALYSIS: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses.The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary FrameworkInfluenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisSmoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisCommunity-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisPulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisLong-term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisNoninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisNoninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisHospital-at-Home Programs for Patients with Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisHome Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based AnalysisCost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy ModelEXPERIENCES OF LIVING AND DYING WITH COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical LiteratureFOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE QUALITATIVE REVIEW, PLEASE CONTACT MITA GIACOMINI AT: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm.FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, PLEASE VISIT THE PATH WEBSITE: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx.The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness of the influenza vaccination and the pneumococcal vaccination in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in reducing the incidence of influenza-related illness or pneumococcal pneumonia. CLINICAL NEED: CONDITION AND TARGET POPULATION INFLUENZA DISEASE: Influenza is a global threat. It is believed that the risk of a pandemic of influenza still exists. Three pandemics occurred in the 20(th) century which resulted in millions of deaths worldwide. The fourth pandemic of H1N1 influenza occurred in 2009 and affected countries in all continents. Rates of serious illness due to influenza viruses are high among older people and patients with chronic conditions such as COPD. The influenza viruses spread from person to person through sneezing and coughing. Infected persons can transfer the virus even a day before their symptoms start. The incubation period is 1 to 4 days with a mean of 2 days. Symptoms of influenza infection include fever, shivering, dry cough, headache, runny or stuffy nose, muscle ache, and sore throat. Other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can occur. Complications of influenza infection include viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, and other secondary bacterial infections such as bronchitis, sinusitis, and otitis media. In viral pneumonia, patients develop acute fever and dyspnea, and may further show signs and symptoms of hypoxia. The organisms involved in bacterial pneumonia are commonly identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Hemophilus influenza. The incidence of secondary bacterial pneumonia is most common in the elderly and those with underlying conditions such as congestive heart disease and chronic bronchitis. Healthy people usually recover within one week but in very young or very old people and those with underlying medical conditions such as COPD, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, influenza is associated with higher risks and may lead to hospitalization and in some cases death. The cause of hospitalization or death in many cases is viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia. Influenza infection can lead to the exacerbation of COPD or an underlying heart disease. STREPTOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA: Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as pneumococcus, is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium that often colonizes in the nasopharynx of healthy children and adults. Pneumococcus can be transmitted from person to person during close contact. The bacteria can cause illnesses such as otitis media and sinusitis, and may become more aggressive and affect other areas of the body such as the lungs, brain, joints, and blood stream. More severe infections caused by pneumococcus are pneumonia, bacterial sepsis, meningitis, peritonitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and in rare cases, endocarditis and pericarditis. People with impaired immune systems are susceptible to pneumococcal infection. Young children, elderly people, patients with underlying medical conditions including chronic lung or heart disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, sickle cell disease, and people who have undergone a splenectomy are at a higher risk for acquiring pneumococcal pneumonia. TECHNOLOGY: INFLUENZA AND PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINES: TRIVALENT INFLUENZA VACCINES IN CANADA: In Canada, 5 trivalent influenza vaccines are currently authorized for use by injection. Four of these are formulated for intramuscular use and the fifth product (Intanza(®)) is formulated for intradermal use. The 4 vaccines for intramuscular use are: Fluviral (GlaxoSmithKline), split virus, inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months;Vaxigrip (Sanofi Pasteur), split virus inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months;Agriflu (Novartis), surface antigen inactivated vaccine, for use in adults and children ≥ 6 months; andInfluvac (Abbott), surface antigen inactivated vaccine, for use in persons ≥ 18 years of age.FluMist is a live attenuated virus in the form of an intranasal spray for persons aged 2 to 59 years. Immunization with current available influenza vaccines is not recommended for infants less than 6 months of age. PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE: Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines were developed more than 50 years ago and have progressed from 2-valent vaccines to the current 23-valent vaccines to prevent diseases caused by 23 of the most common serotypes of S pneumoniae. Canada-wide estimates suggest that approximately 90% of cases of pneumococcal bacteremia and meningitis are caused by these 23 serotypes. Health Canada has issued licenses for 2 types of 23-valent vaccines to be injected intramuscularly or subcutaneously: Pneumovax 23(®) (Merck & Co Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA), andPneumo 23(®) (Sanofi Pasteur SA, Lion, France) for persons 2 years of age and older.Other types of pneumococcal vaccines licensed in Canada are for pediatric use. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is injected only once. A second dose is applied only in some conditions. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: What is the effectiveness of the influenza vaccination and the pneumococcal vaccination compared with no vaccination in COPD patients?What is the safety of these 2 vaccines in COPD patients?What is the budget impact and cost-effectiveness of these 2 vaccines in COPD patients? RESEARCH METHODS: LITERATURE SEARCH: SEARCH STRATEGY: A literature search was performed on July 5, 2010 using OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) for studies published from January 1, 2000 to July 5, 2010. The search was updated monthly through the AutoAlert function of the search up to January 31, 2011. Abstracts were reviewed by a single reviewer and, for those studies meeting the eligibility criteria, full-text articles were obtained. Articles with an unknown eligibility were reviewed with a second clinical epidemiologist and then a group of epidemiologists until consensus was established. Data extraction was carried out by the author. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series 01/2012; 12(3):1-64.
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ABSTRACT: To elucidate the relationship among body mass index, nutrient intake and blood antioxidant capacity in the postmenopausal period, 60 women residing in Iksan area were recruited. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated base on height and weight, and food and nutrient intakes were estimated by 24-hour recalls of 3 non-consecutive days. Parameters of antioxidant capacity including the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TA) were measured in fasting blood samples from the subjects. The average age, height, weight and BMI of the subjects were 65 years, 151.1cm, 59.5 kg and 26.0 m/kg, respectively. The macronutrient intake rate of carbohydrate : protein : fat were 65:17.5:17.5; the mean intakes of energy and protein were 1532.7 kcal (86.3% of RDA) and 67.1 g (122.0% of RDA) respectively. The mean intakes of phosphorus, vitamin A, niacin and vitamin C were higher than Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for Koreans. On the other hand, calcium and riboflavin intakes were only 84.6% and 70.4% of RDA. Among the parameters of antioxidant capacity, SOD activity was significantly lower in lean subjects (BMI06/2007; 12(2). DOI:10.3746/jfn.2007.12.2.095