Blocked endocytotic uptake by the oocyte causes accumulation of vitellogenins in the haemolymph of the female-sterile mutants quitPX61 and stand stillPS34 of Drosophila.
ABSTRACT The developmental lesions in two female-sterile mutants, quitPX61 (qui) and stand stillPS34 (stil), of Drosophila have been analysed. Previtellogenic development is normal in mutant qui ovarioles but, during vitellogenic stages, only small quantities of yolk accumulate in the oocyte. The nurse-cell cytoplasm does not stream into the oocyte. However, the follicle cells continue their developmental program and synthesize an excessive quantity of eggshell material. In the mutant stil, the oocyte remains small and contains only a fraction of the yolk proteins present in wild-type follicles. Histological and ultrastructural observations and the failure to incorporate trypan blue indicate that the yolk proteins present in the mutant follicles are neither derived from the fat body nor from the follicle cells. Since, in both mutants, the uptake mechanism of vitellogenin is affected, the 3 polypeptides accumulate in the haemolymph (in stil, the protein concentration is up to 4 times higher than in wild-type females) and the haemolymph volume increases. Reciprocal transplantations of ovarioles show that the developmental lesions in both mutants are ovary-autonomous. Furthermore, genetic chimeras of stil show that the activity of the stil gene is required in the germline cells and not in the somatic tissues.
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ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis are both selective surface internalization processes but have little known mechanistic similarity or interdependence. Here we show that the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain protein Ced-6, a well-established phagocytosis component that operates as a transducer of so-called "eat-me" signals during engulfment of apoptotic cells and microorganisms, is expressed in the female Drosophila germline and that Ced-6 expression correlates with ovarian follicle development. Ced-6 exhibits all the known biochemical properties of a clathrin-associated sorting protein, yet ced-6-null flies are semifertile despite massive accumulation of soluble yolk precursors in the hemolymph. This is because redundant sorting signals within the cytosolic domain of the Drosophila vitellogenin receptor Yolkless, a low density lipoprotein receptor superfamily member, occur; a functional atypical dileucine signal binds to the endocytic AP-2 clathrin adaptor directly. Nonetheless, the Ced-6 PTB domain specifically recognizes the noncanonical Yolkless FXNPXA sorting sequence and in HeLa cells promotes the rapid, clathrin-dependent uptake of a Yolkless chimera lacking the distal dileucine signal. Ced-6 thus operates in vivo as a clathrin adaptor. Because the human Ced-6 orthologue GULP similarly binds to clathrin machinery, localizes to cell surface clathrin-coated structures, and is enriched in placental clathrin-coated vesicles, new possibilities for Ced-6/Gulp operation during phagocytosis must be considered.Molecular biology of the cell 03/2012; 23(9):1742-64. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E11-11-0939 · 5.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We identified a new gene, stand still (stil), required in the female germline for proper survival, sex determination and differentiation. Three strong loss-of-function alleles were isolated. The strongest phenotype exhibited by ovaries dissected from adult females is the complete absence of germ cells. In other ovaries, the few surviving germ cells frequently show a morphology typical of primary spermatocytes. stil is not required either for fly viability or for male germline development. The gene was cloned and found to encode a novel protein. stil is strongly expressed in the female germ cells. Using P[stil+] transgenes, we show that stil and a closely localized gene are involved in the modification of the ovarian phenotypes of the dominant alleles of ovo caused by heterozygosity of region 49 A-D. The similarity of the mutant phenotypes of stil to that of otu and ovo suggests that the three genes function in a common or in parallel pathways necessary in the female germline for its survival, sex determination and differentiation.Genetics 05/1997; 145(4):975-87. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endocytosis, which is a key process in eukaryotic cells, has a central role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, nutrient uptake, development and downregulation of signal transduction. This complex process depends on several protein-protein interactions mediated by specific modules. One such module is the EH domain. The EH-domain-containing proteins comprise a family that includes four vertebrate members (EHD1-EHD4) and one Drosophila ortholog, Past1. We used Drosophila as a model to understand the physiological role of this family of proteins. We observed that the two predicted Past1 transcripts are differentially expressed both temporally and spatially during the life cycle of the fly. Endogenous Past1 as well as Past1A and Past1B, expressed from plasmids, were localized mainly to the membrane of Drosophila-derived cells. We generated mutants in the Past1 gene by excising a P-element inserted in it. The Past1 mutants reached adulthood but died precociously. They were temperature sensitive and infertile because of lesions in the reproductive system. Garland cells that originated from Past1 mutants exhibited a marked decrease in their ability to endocytose fluorescently labeled avidin. Genetic interaction was found between Past1 and members of the Notch signaling pathway, suggesting a role for Past1 in this developmentally crucial signaling pathway.Journal of Cell Science 02/2009; 122(Pt 4):471-80. DOI:10.1242/jcs.038521 · 5.33 Impact Factor